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Don Burleson Blog 








Oracle IBM terabyte RAM benchmark

Oracle Database Tips by Donald Burleson

This amazing new TPC benchmark for IBM Oracle is the first to use a trillion bytes of RAM.  With the advent of 64-bit processors it is now possible to fully cache large databases, eliminating disk I/O.  As an alternative to large RAM, many companies are now employing RAM disk (SSD), for nanosecond access speeds to Oracle data.  This benchmark used a IBM eServer p5 595 Model 9119-595, an 8 million dollar environment with spectacular performance. Here is the executive summary, noting that the benchmark simulated 1.2 million users!

Learn Oracle tuning from Oracle benchmarks

Benchmark vendors invest millions of dollars in tuning their Oracle databases, and benchmarks are a great way to understand detailed parameter settings to optimizer Oracle in specific environments. 

I highly recommend the book "Oracle Benchmarking" for more details on conducting and interpreting Oracle benchmarks.  This book is written by numerous Oracle tuning experts and shows a complete method for Oracle and SQL Server benchmarking

Features of high performance Oracle benchmarks

The salient point of this benchmark are noted in the initialization parameters where we see several important Oracle tuning tips for this type of IBM AIX system:

  • Over 60 custom Oracle parameters (see below).
  • Large RAM regions - This benchmark utilized over a terabyte of RAM.
  • Multiple blocksizes (to segregate I/O).  Multiple blocksizes have proven to be a great approach for high performance Oracle systems, and this benchmark used a 178 gigabyte default cache, plus separate 2k, 16k, KEEP and RECYCLE pools.  This approach allows the DBA to segregate objects into separate tablespaces (according to processing requirements) and apply them to separate buffer pools:

db_cache_size = 176000M
db_2k_cache_size = 2048M
db_16k_cache_size = 99000M
db_keep_cache_size = 600000M
db_recycle_cache_size = 64000M

  • Over 30 undocumented (hidden) Oracle parameters.  Especially note the setting for _optimizer_cost_model (set to io, as opposed to cpu), and the large NUMA (non-uniform memory access) setting of 500 megabytes:

 _NUMA_pool_size = 536870912
 _undo_autotune = false
 _imu_pools = 358
 _optimizer_cache_stats = false
 _optimizer_cost_model = io
 _cursor_cache_frame_bind_memory = true
 _db_writer_coalesce_area_size = 16777216
 _kghdsidx_count = 1

  • Huge shared pool - This benchmark used a 14 gigabyte shared_pool_size, showing that large shared pools can be highly performant in Oracle 10g.

Oracle benchmark references:

Here is the full set of init.ora parameters used in this amazing terabyte benchmark:

compatible =
_NUMA_pool_size = 536870912
timed_statistics = FALSE
db_name = tpcc
control_files = /home/oracle/db/control_001
dml_locks = 500
log_buffer = 67108864 # 1048576x cpu
parallel_max_servers = 0
parallel_min_servers = 0
db_files = 3000
fast_start_io_target = 0
db_cache_size = 176000M
db_2k_cache_size = 2048M
db_16k_cache_size = 99000M
db_keep_cache_size = 600000M
db_recycle_cache_size = 64000M
enqueue_resources = 60000
processes = 2000
sessions = 3000
transactions = 2800
shared_pool_size = 14000M
cursor_space_for_time = TRUE
db_block_size = 4096
undo_management = auto
trace_enabled = FALSE
db_block_checksum = FALSE
trace_enabled = FALSE
statistics_level = basic
plsql_optimize_level = 2
pga_aggregate_target = 0
_undo_autotune = false
undo_retention = 1
_imu_pools = 358
_optimizer_cache_stats = false
_optimizer_cost_model = io
fast_start_mttr_target = 0
db_writer_processes = 16
log_checkpoint_interval = 453701520
log_checkpoints_to_alert = TRUE
log_checkpoint_timeout = 1700
java_pool_size = 0
remote_login_passwordfile = shared
disk_asynch_io = TRUE
db_block_checking = FALSE
cursor_space_for_time = TRUE
lock_sga = TRUE
replication_dependency_tracking = FALSE
db_file_multiblock_read_count = 1
_cursor_cache_frame_bind_memory = true
_db_writer_coalesce_area_size = 16777216
aq_tm_processes = 0
_kghdsidx_count = 1

UNIX (AIX) parameters for the IBM benchmark include:

SW_dist_intr false Enable SW distribution of interrupts
autorestart true Automatically REBOOT system after a
crash True
boottype disk N/A False
capacity_inc 1.00 Processor capacity increment
capped true Partition is capped
conslogin enable System Console Login
cpuguard enable CPU Guard
dedicated true Partition is dedicated
ent_capacity 32.00 Entitled processor capacity
frequency 528000000 System Bus Frequency
fullcore false Enable full CORE dump
fwversion IBM,SF222_081 Firmware version and revision
levels False
id_to_partition 0X80000D71EE800001 Partition ID
id_to_system 0X80000D71EE800000 System ID
iostat false Continuously maintain DISK I/O history
keylock normal State of system keylock at boot time
max_capacity 32.00 Maximum potential processor
capacity False
max_logname 9 Maximum login name length at boot
time True
maxbuf 20 Maximum number of pages in block I/O
maxmbuf 0 Maximum Kbytes of real memory
allowed for MBUFS True
maxpout 0 HIGH water mark for pending write I/Os
per file True
maxuproc 20000 Maximum number of PROCESSES
allowed per user True
min_capacity 1.00 Minimum potential processor capacity
minpout 0 LOW water mark for pending write I/Os
per file True

modelname IBM,9119-595 Machine name
ncargs 100 ARG/ENV list size in 4K byte blocks
pre430core false Use pre-430 style CORE dump
pre520tune disable Pre-520 tuning compatibility mode
realmem 1067974656 Amount of usable physical memory
in Kbytes False
rtasversion 1 Open Firmware RTAS version
systemid IBM,02028E67C Hardware system identifier
variable_weight 0 Variable processor capacity weight
memory_frames = 266993664
pinnable_frames = 5531556
maxfree = 128
minfree = 120
minperm% = 20
minperm = 1135485
maxperm% = 80
maxperm = 4541953
strict_maxperm = 0
maxpin% = 99
maxpin = 266860626
maxclient% = 80
lrubucket = 131072
defps = 1
nokilluid = 0
numpsblks = 2097152
npskill = 16384
npswarn = 65536
v_pinshm = 1
pta_balance_threshold = n/a
pagecoloring = n/a
framesets = 2
mempools = 1
lgpg_size = 16777216
lgpg_regions = 61936
num_spec_dataseg = 0
spec_dataseg_int = 512
memory_affinity = 1
htabscale = n/a
force_relalias_lite = 0
relalias_percentage = 0
rpgcontrol = 2
rpgclean = 0
npsrpgmin = 98304
npsrpgmax = 131072
scrub = 0
scrubclean = 0
npsscrubmin = 98304
npsscrubmax = 131072
data_stagger_interval = 161
large_page_heap_size = 2147483648
kernel_heap_psize = 16777216
soft_min_lgpgs_vmpool = 0
vm_modlist_threshold = -1
vmm_fork_policy = 1
low_ps_handling = 1
mbuf_heap_psize = 4096
strict_maxclient = 1
cpu_scale_memp = 8

If you like Oracle tuning, you may enjoy the new book "Oracle Tuning: The Definitive Reference", over 900 pages of BC's favorite tuning tips & scripts. 

You can buy it direct from the publisher for 30%-off and get instant access to the code depot of Oracle tuning scripts.



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