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Oracle ACL Tips

Oracle 11g New Features Tips by Donald BurlesonJune 29, 2015

Oracle 11g New Features Tips

% ACLs are stored in XML DB.
           XML DB must be installed for the use of ACLs !

The creation of ACLs is a two step procedure.

The first step is to create the actual ACL and define the privileges for it:

The general syntax is as follows:

acl => "file_name.xml",
description => "file description",
principal => "user_or_role",
is_grant => TRUE|FALSE,
privilege => "connect|resolve",
start_date => null|timestamp_with_time_zone,
end_date => null|timestamp_with_time_zone);

The value connect for the parameter privilege includes resolve! This is necessary for the package UTL_INTADDR.

% The parameter principal specifies the first username granted the ACL and is            case sensitive!

% If you want to grant multiple users you must use the            DBMS_NETWORK_ACL.ADD_PRIVILEGE procedure to add users.

Here is an example for an ACL:

  acl => 'sysdba-ch-permissions.xml',
  description => "Permissions for sysdba network',
  principal => "LUTZ',
  is_grant => TRUE,
  privilege => 'connect');

This creates an xml file which holds a list of users and privileges. This container is located under /sys/acl/ in the XML DB.

The second step is to assign network hosts to the ACL.

After the creation of the ACL you can add hosts to it:

Below again you find the general syntax:

acl => "file_name.xml",
host => "network_host",
lower_port => null|port_number,
upper_port => null|port_number);

And here is an example:

  acl => 'sysdba-ch-permissions.xml',
  host => "*',
  lower_port => 80,
  upper_port => null);

% It is possible to use wildcards in the hosts parameter. This allows access to            all hosts in the domain.
           Hostnames are case sensitive
You can use an IP address as well as  a DNS hostname

% Only one ACL can be assigned to a host or domain or IP subnet or port range            (if specified)!

% You can assign multiple hosts to the same ACL by calling            DBMS_NETWORK_ACL_ADMIN.ASSIGN_ACL multiple times

Oracle evaluated ACLs in the following sequence:

  1. fully qualified hostnames are evaluated

  2. hostnames with ports

  3. partial domain names and sub-domains 

% Do not modify the xml files with a text editor!

The data dictionary views related to ACLs are dba_network_acls and dba_"user_network_acl_privileges:

LUTZ AS SYSDBA @ orcl SQL> DESC dba_network_acls

 Name                         Null"    Type
 ---------------------------- -------- ------------------------------------
 HOST                         NOT NULL VARCHAR2(1000)
 LOWER_PORT                            NUMBER(5)
 UPPER_PORT                            NUMBER(5)
 ACL                                   VARCHAR2(4000)
 ACLID                        NOT NULL RAW(16)

LUTZ AS SYSDBA @ orcl SQL> DESC dba_network_acl_privileges

 Name                        Null"    Type
 ------------------------------------ ----------------------------------------
 ACL                                   VARCHAR2(4000)
 ACLID                                 RAW(16)
 PRINCIPAL                             VARCHAR2(4000)
 PRIVILEGE                             VARCHAR2(7)
 IS_GRANT                              VARCHAR2(5)
 INVERT                                VARCHAR2(5)
 START_DATE                            TIMESTAMP(9) WITH TIME ZONE
 END_DATE                              TIMESTAMP(9) WITH TIME ZONE

How to create and manage ACLs with OEM

The friends of graphical interfaces can also create and manage ACLs. There is an interface to the XML DB integrated into the Enterprise Manager.

% Access Control Lists are an XML DB functionality.

You find the link for the ACLs in the SCHEMA pane in Database Control 11g:

Other Network Security Features

The listener is secured by default in 11g.

It is not possible to manage the listener from remote any more without a password or Class of Secure Transports (COST).

Only the local user who started the listener can stop it in 11g.

% Still we have a default listener with the name LISTENER and port 1521!   

In  11g and beyond, Oracle has introduced the ability to restrict connections to specific hosts (or IP addresses). 

The access control lists (ACL) are used to restrict the hosts that are allowed to connect to the Oracle database.  

ACL"s are created using the dbms_network_acl_admin and dbms_network_acl_utility packages.  Either package can be used to create and manage ACLs.   

Here is an example for an ACL:

acl => 'sysdba-ch-permissions.xml',
description => "Permissions for sysdba network',  
principal => "LUTZ',  
is_grant => TRUE,  
privilege => 'connect');

The ACL is then added to the "http://host:port/sys/acls/" directory.

Please note that you will encounter an ORA-24247  error if it relies on one of the network packages and no proper ACL has been created.


This is an excerpt from the new book Oracle 11g New Features: Expert Guide to the Important New Features by John Garmany, Steve Karam, Lutz Hartmann, V. J. Jain, Brian Carr.

You can buy it direct from the publisher for 30% off.


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