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Oracle Concepts - Oracle Background Processes

Oracle Tips by Burleson Consulting

Oracle Background Processes

We have noted that you can conceptualize Oracle as a large computer program, but in reality, Oracle is a collection of many programs called ?background processes?, with each program assigned to a specific job.  The Oracle database can have a lot of processes running, depending on how you have configured your database. There are two different kinds of background processes associated with Oracle, required processes and optional processes. Let?s look at these processes in a bit more detail.

Oracle Database Required Processes

Here are some of the most important Oracle background processes:

* SMON - System Monitor process recovers after instance failure and monitors temporary segments and extents. SMON in a non-failed instance can also perform failed instance recovery for other failed RAC instance.

* PMON - Process Monitor process recovers failed process resources. If MTS (also called Shared Server Architecture) is being utilized, PMON monitors and restarts any failed dispatcher or server processes. In RAC, PMON?s role as service registration agent is particularly important.

* DBWR - Database Writer or Dirty Buffer Writer process is responsible for writing dirty buffers from the database block cache to the database data files. Generally, DBWR only writes blocks back to the data files on commit, or when the cache is full and space has to be made for more blocks. The possible multiple DBWR processes in RAC must be coordinated through the locking and global cache processes to ensure efficient processing is accomplished.

* LGWR - Log Writer process is responsible for writing the log buffers out to the redo logs. In RAC, each RAC instance has its own LGWR process that maintains that instance?s thread of redo logs.

* ARCH ? The optional Archive process writes filled redo logs to the archive log location(s). In RAC, the various ARCH processes can be utilized to ensure that copies of the archived redo logs for each instance are available to the other instances in the RAC setup should they be needed for recovery.

The Log Writer Process

We discussed the redo log buffer earlier in this chapter, and how its contents are transferred to disk regularly. The Log Writer Process (LGWR) is responsible for the movement of this redo.

Like all the other ?slave? programs, the LGWR process is started when the database is started, and shutdown when the database is shutdown. On regular intervals LGWR will move the redo from the redo log buffer to files on disk designed to store the redo called online redo log files. We will discuss the online redo logs later in this chapter.

The Database Writer Process

The Database Writer (DBWR) process is responsible for writing data from the RAM buffer cache to the database datafiles on disk. The database datafiles are physical files on disk (i.e. customer.dbf). The default is to have one database writer process, but large databases can have multiple DBWR processes.

The Checkpoint Process

The checkpoint process is responsible for updating file headers in the database datafiles. A checkpoint occurs when Oracle moves new or updated blocks (called dirty blocks) from the RAM buffer cache to the database datafiles. A checkpoint keeps the database buffer cache and the database datafiles synchronized. This synchronization is part of the mechanism that Oracle uses to ensure that your database can always be recovered.

The Process Monitor Process

The Process Monitor is the janitor of the database, cleaning-up trash left-over from aborted user sessions (for instance, if a client abnormally disconnects from the database). If this should happen, it is the job of the Process Monitor (PMON) process to cleanup after that failure. PMON will cleanup memory areas and other database resources that were in use by that user process. PMON constantly checks the status of user and database processes. In some cases, failed database processes can be restarted by PMON.

The System Monitor Process

When you startup your Oracle database, Oracle will perform several checks to see if the database is healthy. SMON manages your database for you!

If Oracle finds a problem at startup time, the System Monitor process (SMON) will perform recovery activities. SMON also performs certain types of database maintenance. These activities occur in the background and have no real impact on normal database operations.

Optional Oracle Background Processes

The Oracle database comes with a number of additional processes that are optional. For example, Oracle comes with a program that allows you to schedule the times that certain database programs will run.   This program is known as the job scheduler process. The job scheduler is an optional program that must be enabled for it to operate.

When the job scheduler is enabled, a process (program) will be started to control the job scheduler. This is known as the Job Queue Process.  Here are the most common optional processes:

* Job Queue Process (CJQ) - Used for the job scheduler. The job scheduler includes a main program (the coordinator) and slave programs that the coordinator executes. The parameter job_queue_processes controls how many parallel job scheduler jobs can be executed at one time.

* Archiver Process (ARCn) - Used to archive online redo logs (which we discuss later in this chapter) to disk. In cases when it is needed, Oracle Database 10g will start the ARCn process automatically. If additional ARCn processes are needed, then the Oracle Database will start up to 9 additional processes.

* Queue Monitor Process (QMNn) - Used to manage Oracle Streams Advanced Queueing.

* MMON, MMNL, MMAN - Used to perform various database management tasks.

Now that we have learned about the basic Oracle background processes, let?s look at how they all interface. As you can see from the picture below, the SGA is the main point of contact between processes, providing shared RAM storage:

Now, let?s wrap-up our architectural discussion by looking at the data files where our information is stored.

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Note: This Oracle documentation was created as a support and Oracle training reference for use by our DBA performance tuning consulting professionals.  Feel free to ask questions on our Oracle forum.

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Errata?  Oracle technology is changing and we strive to update our BC Oracle support information.  If you find an error or have a suggestion for improving our content, we would appreciate your feedback.  Just  e-mail:  and include the URL for the page.


                    









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