Call now: 252-767-6166  
Oracle Training Oracle Support Development Oracle Apps

 
 Home
 E-mail Us
 Oracle Articles
New Oracle Articles


 Oracle Training
 Oracle Tips

 Oracle Forum
 Class Catalog


 Remote DBA
 Oracle Tuning
 Emergency 911
 RAC Support
 Apps Support
 Analysis
 Design
 Implementation
 Oracle Support


 SQL Tuning
 Security

 Oracle UNIX
 Oracle Linux
 Monitoring
 Remote s
upport
 Remote plans
 Remote
services
 Application Server

 Applications
 Oracle Forms
 Oracle Portal
 App Upgrades
 SQL Server
 Oracle Concepts
 Software Support

 Remote S
upport  
 Development  

 Implementation


 Consulting Staff
 Consulting Prices
 Help Wanted!

 


 Oracle Posters
 Oracle Books

 Oracle Scripts
 Ion
 Excel-DB  

Don Burleson Blog 


 

 

 


 

 

 
 

Dynamic Binds Using Context


Oracle Tips by Burleson Consulting

 

The following Tip is from the outstanding book "Oracle PL/SQL Tuning: Expert Secrets for High Performance Programming" by Dr. Tim Hall, Oracle ACE of the year, 2006:

Weve already seen that using bind variables is an important part of making sure that an application runs efficiently.  Using bind variables with dynamic SQL can prove difficult at times as the number and ordering of the bind variables may vary depending on how the SQL statement was built up.  To illustrate this we will need a test table, which can be created using the create_dynamic_binds_tab.sql script.

create_dymanic_binds_tab.sql
CREATE TABLE dynamic_binds (
  id      NUMBER(10),
  code_1  VARCHAR2(5),
  code_2  VARCHAR2(5)
);

INSERT INTO dynamic_binds (id, code_1, code_2) VALUES (1, A, Z);
INSERT INTO dynamic_binds (id, code_1, code_2) VALUES (2, A, Y);
INSERT INTO dynamic_binds (id, code_1, code_2) VALUES (3, B, Z);
INSERT INTO dynamic_binds (id, code_1, code_2) VALUES (4, B, Y);
INSERT INTO dynamic_binds (id, code_1, code_2) VALUES (5, B, Z);
COMMIT;

The get_row_count.sql script creates a function that returns the number of rows in the dynamic_binds table that match the specified criteria.

get_row_count.sql

CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION get_row_count (
  p_code_1  IN  dynamic_binds.code_1%TYPE  DEFAULT NULL,
  p_code_2  IN  dynamic_binds.code_2%TYPE  DEFAULT NULL)
  RETURN NUMBER AS

  l_sql     VARCHAR2(32767);
  l_number  NUMBER;
BEGIN

  l_sql := 'SELECT COUNT(*) INTO :b_number FROM dynamic_binds WHERE 1=1 ';

  IF p_code_1 IS NOT NULL THEN
    l_sql := l_sql || 'AND code_1 = :b_code_1 ';
  END IF;

  IF p_code_2 IS NOT NULL THEN
    l_sql := l_sql || 'AND code_2 = :b_code_2 ';
  END IF; 

  DBMS_OUTPUT.put_line('-----------------------------------');
  DBMS_OUTPUT.put_line(l_sql); 

  CASE
    WHEN p_code_1 IS NOT NULL AND p_code_2 IS NULL THEN
      EXECUTE IMMEDIATE l_sql INTO l_number USING p_code_1;
    WHEN p_code_1 IS NULL AND p_code_2 IS NOT NULL THEN
      EXECUTE IMMEDIATE l_sql INTO l_number USING p_code_2;
    WHEN p_code_1 IS NOT NULL AND p_code_2 IS NOT NULL THEN
      EXECUTE IMMEDIATE l_sql INTO l_number USING p_code_1, p_code_2;
    ELSE
      EXECUTE IMMEDIATE l_sql INTO l_number;
  END CASE; 

  RETURN l_number;
END get_row_count;
/
SHOW ERRORS

Notice how the function contains one set of logic for building up the SQL statement and another for deciding which bind variables should be used.  The get_row_count_test.sql script can be used to test the function.

get_row_count_test.sql

SET SERVEROUTPUT ON
BEGIN
  DBMS_OUTPUT.put_line('get_row_count=' || get_row_count);
  DBMS_OUTPUT.put_line('get_row_count(p_code_1 => ''A'')=' ||
                        get_row_count(p_code_1 => 'A'));
  DBMS_OUTPUT.put_line('get_row_count(p_code_2 => ''Z'')=' ||
                        get_row_count(p_code_2 => 'Z'));
  DBMS_OUTPUT.put_line('get_row_count(p_code_1 => ''B'', p_code_2 => ''Y'')='
                     || get_row_count(p_code_1 => 'B', p_code_2 => 'Y'));
END;
/

The results of this script display both the SQL statement generated by the function and the resulting row count.

SQL> @get_row_count_test.sql
-----------------------------------
SELECT COUNT(*) INTO :b_number FROM dynamic_binds WHERE 1=1
get_row_count=5
-----------------------------------
SELECT COUNT(*) INTO :b_number FROM dynamic_binds WHERE 1=1 AND code_1 = :b_code_1
get_row_count(p_code_1 => 'A')=2
-----------------------------------
SELECT COUNT(*) INTO :b_number FROM dynamic_binds WHERE 1=1 AND code_2 = :b_code_2
get_row_count(p_code_2 => 'Z')=3
-----------------------------------
SELECT COUNT(*) INTO :b_number FROM dynamic_binds WHERE 1=1 AND code_1 = :b_code_1 AND code_2 =
:b_code_2
get_row_count(p_code_1 => 'B', p_code_2 => 'Y')=1

PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.

From this we can see that each combination of parameters generates a different SQL statement, hence the need for the logic to decide how to bind the variables.

This is only a simple example, so you can see how complex dynamic SQL statements can become almost impossible to manage.  For lots of programmers this complexity forces them give up on using bind variables and revert to concatenating values directly into the SQL statement.  This is where the use of contexts can come to our rescue.  In chapter four we will describe how contexts can be used to store global data, but they can also help us with dynamic SQL bind variables.

First we must create a context and an associated package to allow us to set the parameter values.  The creation of the context requires the CREATE ANY CONTEXT privilege, which must be granted before running the create_context.sql script.

create_context.sql

CREATE OR REPLACE CONTEXT parameter USING context_api;

CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE context_api AS
PROCEDURE set_parameter(p_name   IN  VARCHAR2,
                        p_value  IN  VARCHAR2);
END context_api;
/
SHOW ERRORS

CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY context_api IS

-- ----------------------------------------------------------------------------
PROCEDURE set_parameter (p_name   IN  VARCHAR2,
                         p_value  IN  VARCHAR2) IS
-- ----------------------------------------------------------------------------
BEGIN
  DBMS_SESSION.set_context('parameter', p_name, p_value);
END set_parameter;
-- ----------------------------------------------------------------------------

END context_api;
/
SHOW ERRORS

Once the context and the associated package have been created we can perform a simple test to make sure the context is working correctly.

SQL> EXEC context_api.set_parameter('variable1','value1');

PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.

SQL> SELECT SYS_CONTEXT('parameter','variable1')
  2  FROM   dual;


SYS_CONTEXT('PARAMETER','VARIA
-----------------------------------------------------------------
value1

1 row selected.

The call to the context_api.set_parameter procedure created a context variable called variable1 and assigned it the value of value1.  The query used the sys_context function to retrieve the value, proving the context is working correctly.

With the context in place we can recreate the get_row_count function using the get_row_count_2.sql script, which shows how the function is recoded to use the context.

get_row_count_2.sql

CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION get_row_count (
  p_code_1  IN  dynamic_binds.code_1%TYPE  DEFAULT NULL,
  p_code_2  IN  dynamic_binds.code_2%TYPE  DEFAULT NULL)
  RETURN NUMBER AS

  l_sql     VARCHAR2(32767);
  l_number  NUMBER;
BEGIN

  l_sql := 'SELECT COUNT(*) INTO :b_number FROM dynamic_binds WHERE 1=1 ';

  IF p_code_1 IS NOT NULL THEN
    context_api.set_parameter('code_1', p_code_1);
    l_sql := l_sql || 'AND code_1 = SYS_CONTEXT(''parameter'',''code_1'') ';
  END IF;

  IF p_code_2 IS NOT NULL THEN
    context_api.set_parameter('code_2', p_code_2);
    l_sql := l_sql || 'AND code_2 = SYS_CONTEXT(''parameter'',''code_2'') ';
  END IF; 

  DBMS_OUTPUT.put_line('-----------------------------------');
  DBMS_OUTPUT.put_line(l_sql); 

  EXECUTE IMMEDIATE l_sql INTO l_number;

  RETURN l_number;
END get_row_count;
/

This is an excerpt from the bestselling book "Oracle PL/SQL Tuning: Expert Secrets for High Performance Programming" by Dr. Tim Hall, Oracle ACE of the year, 2006.

You can buy the book for only $23.95 (30%-off) when you buy directly from the publisher, and you also get instant access to the code depot of PL/SQL tuning scripts:


 

 
��  
 
 
Oracle Training at Sea
 
 
 
 
oracle dba poster
 

 
Follow us on Twitter 
 
Oracle performance tuning software 
 
Oracle Linux poster
 
 
 

 

Burleson is the American Team

Note: This Oracle documentation was created as a support and Oracle training reference for use by our DBA performance tuning consulting professionals.  Feel free to ask questions on our Oracle forum.

Verify experience! Anyone considering using the services of an Oracle support expert should independently investigate their credentials and experience, and not rely on advertisements and self-proclaimed expertise. All legitimate Oracle experts publish their Oracle qualifications.

Errata?  Oracle technology is changing and we strive to update our BC Oracle support information.  If you find an error or have a suggestion for improving our content, we would appreciate your feedback.  Just  e-mail:  

and include the URL for the page.


                    









Burleson Consulting

The Oracle of Database Support

Oracle Performance Tuning

Remote DBA Services


 

Copyright © 1996 -  2017

All rights reserved by Burleson

Oracle ® is the registered trademark of Oracle Corporation.

Remote Emergency Support provided by Conversational