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Oracle Windows oradim Utility

Oracle Tips by Burleson Consulting
Don Burleson

 

The following is from the book Oracle Utilities

 

 


 Starting and Stopping Oracle on Windows with oradim

The dbstart and dbstop shell scripts do not exist on Windows platforms. Consequently Oracle database startup and shutdown is implemented completely differently. The oradim utility provides more than just the ability to start and stop Windows databases. Windows oradim can create and edit databases. It also allows DBAs to configure script-based installation mechanisms.

 

The oradim utility is used on the Windows platform to perform these tasks.

C:\ora11g\bin\oradim -startup -sid ORCL92 ?usrpwd manager
-starttype SRVC,INST -pfile C:\ora11g\admin\ORCL92\pfile\init.ora


  ? startup ? Indicates that the specified instance should be started.
  ? sid ? The SID of the database to start.
  ? usrpwd ? The password for the database user.
  ? starttype ? Specifies whether to start the instance, the service, or both

 

 

Startup - The following command can be used to start the instance with oradim:

C:\oracle\bin\oradim ?startup ?sid MYSID

Shutdown - The following command can be used to shutdown the instance with oradim:

C:\oracle\bin\oradim -shutdown -sid MYSID -shutttype SRVC,INST ?shutmode A

 

Create instance - The following command can be used to create an instance with oradim:

C:\oracle\bin\oradim ?new ?sid MYSID ?intpwd <pwd> ?maxusers 20 startmode auto ?pfile initMYSID.ora

Delete Instance - The following command can be used to delete an instance with oradim:

C:\oracle\bin\oradim
?delete ?sid
MYSID


Notice that no password is needed to perform this task.

The shuttype parameter specifies what is to be stopped ? the service (SRVC), the instance (INST), or both (SRVC, INST). The shutmode specifies the method that should perform the shutdown ? (A)bort, (I)mmediate, or (N)ormal.

Each operation, regardless of success, is logged in the oradim log file.


The ORADIM utility only exists on Windows.  It is the command-prompt tool that creates, deletes, stops, and starts instances.  If you have UNIX scripts that create databases, you can still use them (modified of course), but you will need to run ORADIM first to actually create the Instance.  This command is what actually creates the Windows Service that runs the Instance.
 
An example of creating a new Instance for ORCL is:
 
Oradim ?new ?sid ORCL ?intpwd ?maxusers 4 startmode auto ?pfile initSID.ora
 
An example of deleting the Instance for ORCL is:
 
Oradim ?delete ?sid ORCL
 
An example of a shutdown and startup.  These can be used in scripts, such as for a cold backup.
 
Oradim ?shutdown ?sid ORCL ?usrpwd / -shuttype inst, srvc ?shutmode i
 
Oradim ?startup ?sid ORCL

The oradim utility can be launched several different ways to accomplish differing tasks. Also, the parameters passed vary depending upon the purpose being invoked. It creates a log file in the directory $ORACLE_HOME\database.
 
To create a new instance, the syntax is as follows:
 
-NEW -SID sid | -SRVC service | -ASMSID sid | -ASMSRVC service
[-SYSPWD password] [-STARTMODE auto | manual] [-SRVCSTART system | demand]
[-PFILE file | -SPFILE] [-SHUTMODE normal | immediate | abort]
[-TIMEOUT seconds] [-RUNAS os_user/os_password]
 
To modify an existing instance, the syntax is as follows:
 
-EDIT -SID sid | -ASMSID sid
[-SYSPWD password] [-STARTMODE auto | manual] [-SRVCSTART system | demand]
[-PFILE file | -SPFILE] [-SHUTMODE normal | immediate | abort]
[-SHUTTYPE service | instance] [-RUNAS os_user/os_password]
 
To delete an existing instance, the syntax is as follows:
 
-DELETE -SID sid | -ASMSID sid | -SRVC service | -ASMSRVC service
 
To start up an existing instance, the syntax is as follows:
 
-STARTUP -SID sid | -ASMSID sid
[-SYSPWD password] [-STARTTYPE service | instance | service,instance]
[-PFILE filename | -SPFILE]
 
To shut down an existing instance, the syntax is as follows:
 
-SHUTDOWN -SID sid | -ASMSID sid
[-SYSPWD password] [-SHUTTYPE service | instance | service,instance]
[-SHUTMODE normal | immediate | abort]
 
Note:  Although no SYSPWD password is needed to perform this task, the Windows user must have sufficient privileges to execute this command successfully.  The SYSPWD argument is not needed used in ORADIM only when you are signed-in to Windows as admin.  Cases where you are not signed-n as admin require SYSPWD.  Such is the the case when you execute batch scripts in Windows.
 
The shuttype parameter specifies what is to be stopped ? the service (SRVC), the instance (INST), or both (SRVC, INST). The shutmode specifies the method that should perform the shutdown ? (A)bort, (I)mmediate, or (N)ormal.
 
Each operation, regardless of success, is logged in the oradim log file (ORACLE_HOME\database\OraDim.Log). This file should be checked for errors after each oradim command is executed.
 
The oradim  utility provides more than just the ability to start and stop Windows databases. Oradim can create and edit databases. It also allows DBAs to configure script-based installation mechanisms, bypassing the Oracle Database Configuration Assistants graphical user interface (GUI).
 
For a reference of all oradim commands, use the oradim?help command.   A good Oracle DBA will become intimately familiar with the oradim options, and DBAs that start in Linux will often create their own dbstart /dbshut  scripts that call the oradim procedure.



More on oradim

Oracle on Windows is delivered with a utility that is used exclusively for that Operating System ? the ORADIM utility.  Basically its mission in life is to create, delete, stop and start Oracle-related Windows Services from the command line.
 
In UNIX or Linux, when you create a database with a script, you use the create database command - that?s all you need.
 
In Windows, you first need to create the Windows Service.  This is done with the ORADIM command.   Again, ORADIM can also be used to stop, start, modify, and delete the service. 
 
Please note that when using the Oracle Database Assistant or choosing the create database option when using the Oracle Universal Installer, this step us not necessary since those create the service for you.
 
To create the service, the general syntax is:
 
ORADIM -NEW -SID -INTPWD
-MAXUSERS -STARTMODE -PFILE
 
An actual example to create the ORCL instance would be:
 
ORADIM -NEW -SID ORCL -INTPWD mypasswd -MAXUSERS 4 -STARTMODE auto -PFILE C:\oracle\10g\database\initORCL.ora
 
This would create the ORCL instance (and associated Windows Service), with password mypasswd, allowing 4 users to connect as SYSDBA, with the service set to start automatically, using a pfile of C:\oracle\10g\database\initORCL.ora. 
 
A couple things to note here:  First, the command is all one continuous line.  Second, all that this does is create the Windows Service that supports the Oracle Instance.  It does NOT create the database; this you need to do using scripts or commands. 
 
Again, if you use the Database Assistant or the Oracle Universal Installer, then the step of creating the Windows Service is done for you.
 
ORADIM can also be used to delete a service.  To delete the service, the general syntax is:
 
           ORADIM -DELETE -SID
 
An example to delete the ORCL instance would be:
 
          ORADIM -DELETE -SID ORCL
 
The database itself does NOT get deleted by this command, just the Windows Service.  Therefore, one could delete the service, recreate it using the same name, and restart the instance.  All of the database files and contents would remain unchanged.
 
ORADIM can also be used to stop and start the Oracle Instance.  The commands are as follows:
 
To shut down the service (and so the database/instance):
 
          ORADIM -SHUTDOWN -SID -USRPWD / -SHUTTYPE SRVC -SHUTMODE
 
To shut down the database/instance but leave the service running:
 
          ORADIM -SHUTDOWN -SID -USRPWD / -SHUTTYPE INST -SHUTMODE
 
Remember - the INST shuttype shuts the instance down, and the SRVC shuttype stops the Windows Service and with it the database.
 
As an example:
 
          ORADIM -SHUTDOWN -SID ORCL -USRPWD / -SHUTTYPE SRVC -SHUTMODE i
 
One would generally want the shutdown to be immediate or abort; normal would hang until all users and transactions were completely done.  That could take all day!
 
To startup:
 
          ORADIM ?STARTUP ?SID
 
As an example:
 
          ORADIM ?STARTUP ?SID ORCL 
 
These stop and start commands can be quite handy to use when scripting shutdowns and startups, as well as for controlling things from the command line.
 
In addition to the Oracle Alert Log, there is an ORADIM.LOG in the ORACLE_HOME\database directory that tracks all instance shutdowns and startups

The net stop and net start commands can be used to stop and start Oracle Services from scripts and the command line. 
 
Either ORADIM or the net command can be used effectively for those purposes.
 
Warning - Your Oracle Database Probably Will Not be Shutdown Cleanly When Windows is Shut Down!!!

If you recall, we reviewed Oracle Services in Chapter 6 and discussed the Registry Settings controlling the Oracle Services in Chapter 4.



For a reference of all oradim commands, use the oradim scripts here.

oradim script download 

Oracle Windows oradim Utility

Auto start Oracle Automatically

Batch script to start Oracle Windows services

Advanced Oracle Utilities - Oracle ORADIM Utility

How to start Oracle Windows services

Oracle Utilities Starting and Stopping Oracle on Windows

Oracle on Windows for Unix Users

 
   
Windows for the Oracle DBA

The landmark book Windows for the Oracle DBA is a comprehensive overview of everything an Oracle DBA needs to know to manage Oracle on Windows.  Order directly from Rampant and save 30%. 
 


 

 

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