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Don Burleson Blog 







Tuning SQL with "rownum" filters

Oracle Database Tips by Donald BurlesonJuly 24, 2015

Many people forget that the Oracle SQL optimizer is an in-house computer program, written by software engineers, and it's not something where the rules of scientific endeavor apply.

Oracle SQL has lots of special nuances and there are many counterintuitive tips and tricks for tuning Oracle SQL.  The rownum pseudo column is interesting because there are a few legitimate uses for it:

  • Top-n queries - The rownum can be used to materialize an in-line view.  Beware, there are reports that using where rownum<n for top-n queries has the same net effect as using a first_rows_n hint in the query, changing the optimizer mode. This is not always a good thing, as adding the where rownum<n will invalidate the all_rows optimization, which may make a query run far slower.  It's far better to materialize a subquery using the WITH clause.

  • Range-bounded queries - In the discussion below, there are special cases where it may be safe to use rownum to speed-up special cases of range-bounded queries.

  • DML - In some cases you can use rownum with DML, but only if you force the update to use an index with an index hint.  See example here.

However, before we go into more details, note that complex subqueries can be tuned more efficiently by decomposing the subquery into separate queries by using the WITH clause.

Using rownum for top-n queries

As noted, rownum can be used to filter query results, but it may be done at the expense of poor performance. 

Yoni Sade notes that using the where rownum<n caused a query to run 20x longer, an issue that he claims happens because his predicate (alert_level=3) isn't being pushed into the view when the rownum is used :

select *
from (
   select * from all_alerts where alert_level=3 order by alert_time desc);

It takes 5 seconds to get 1000 rows.

When I query to get the last 10 alerts:

select *
from (
   select * from my_view where alert_level=3 order by alert_time desc)

It takes 2 minutes (!)

In this case, with rownum filter, Oracle must fully execute the subquery and sort the entire set before returning the top rows, in some cases, processing thousands of rows. 

Beware!  This use of rownum< can cause performance problems.  Using rownum may change the all_rows optimizer mode for a query to first_rows, causing unexpected sub-optimal execution plans.  One solution is to always include an all_rows hint when using rownum to perform a top-n query.

For top-n SQL queries, it's more efficient form of the query using the rank and over functions may perform faster, with the WINDOW SORT PUSHED RANK execution plan:

   (select empno, sal, rank()
    over (order by sal desc ) rnk
    from emp)
where rnk <= 5;

Also, note that for tuning top-n queries we need to ensure that the subquery is using an index to minimize I/O.

Next, let's examine how using rownum might be used to speed-up range bounded SQL queries.

Using rownum with range bound queries

The "hack" for SQL tuning is used to force a subquery to use an index and invoke the COUNT STOPKEY execution plan.  For a simple example, consider a query to display all rows with a MAX date:

   hire_date = (select max(hire_date) from emp);

In this case, it has been suggested that Oracle will perform an expensive full-scan operation to get the max hire date in the subquery.  William Robertson explains how the "rownum=1" might be used to make this query run faster by forcing the subquery to use an index:

"It has long been possible (even before Dan Tow wrote the article five years ago) to get a subquery or inline view to use an index, and then filter it to get the first row it returns, instead of using something like

WHERE somedate = ( SELECT MAX(somedate) FROM sametable WHERE... )

The idea is you access the values via an index that you know is internally sorted a particular way and stop after the first row, avoiding scanning multiple rows to find the MAX.

Of course, unlike other tuning hacks (like using a rownum expression in a subquery or inline view to prevent merging or unnesting), if it doesn't work as expected you don't just get an unexpected execution plan, you start getting wrong results."

Here is an example of tuning with rownum=1. 

   hire_date = (select max(hire_date) from emp)

Another approach might be to retrieve the subquery rows in pre-sorted order with an index hint:

   hire_date = (select /+* hire_idx */ max(hire_date) from emp);

Oracle guru Dan Tow published this great note on how to make range-bound queries run faster by including the clause "where rownum=1" to the query.  Dan notes a SQL "trick" notes that SQL can run faster if you add a "where rownum=1" to the SQL:

"Although I created this trick for use on Oracle, it should work on MySQL;

use the clause "LIMIT 1" at the end of the query (or at the subquery inside the FROM clause), in place of the condition "rownum=1", and

use the hint USE INDEX() (or FORCE INDEX() ) at the end of the table-reference, and the hint /*! STRAIGHT JOIN */ to force the join order (in place of ORDERED), if necessary.  . .

Similar tricks are likely possible in other open databases, as long as there is a way to force a join order and to stop a query, especially a subquery in a FROM clause, at the first row."

Oracle guru Mark Bobak notes that the rownum=1 is used to "short circuit" an index range scan, useful to speed up range-bounded queries that have overlapping end points:

"As to the rownum=1, the whole idea there is to short circuit the range scan, as soon as you have a single match. It's a way of implementing the idea behind the "least-greater-than-or-equal-to" and "greatest-less-than-or-equal-to"
operators which he discusses in the article.

To answer your questions, the code that Dan provided went into production shortly after he provided me that solution, and I believe it's still going strong, 4 years later."

However, this "trick" appears to be specific to cases where this solution a result set has overlapping endpoints.

How does adding "where rownum" change the SQL execution plan? 
An Oracle ACE notes that one reason for the faster performance is the "COUNT STOPKEY" execution plan step:

"Using rownum only changes the plan slightly.  With a rownum qualification, you should see a 'count stopkey' line in the plan.  Which I believe means that Oracle counts the number of records it finds, and then stops searching when it reaches the rownum value:

select visit_id from pat_visit;

ID    PID    Operation                           Name                    Rows    Bytes    Cost            CPU Cost    IO Cost             SELECT STATEMENT          5000K    28M    4090            684M       4049
1    0          INDEX FAST FULL SCAN    XPKPAT_VISIT      5000K    28M    4090             684M      4049

select visit_id from pat_visit where rownum <=100;

ID    PID    Operation                                Name                      Rows    Bytes    Cost    CPU Cost    IO Cost
0        SELECT STATEMENT                             100         600     2         18881         2
1    0      COUNT STOPKEY                              
2    1        INDEX FAST FULL SCAN    XPKPAT_VISIT    101         606     2         18881           2

I have seen valid uses for "where rownum=1" in cases where the existence of any record automatically required certain processes take place.  For example, a patient where the result of any test at all having a result value in the critical range is likely to automatically require emergency notifications to hospital personnel."

Internally, it is not complete clear how this rownum=1 trick work, especially since it has been noted that the Oracle optimizer changes the overall optimizer mode behind the curtains. 

Rownum and release level

It's important to note that rownum in SQL behavior has changed between releases and it behaved quite differently before Oracle10g.  See Bug 6845871 - Suboptimal plan from ROWNUM predicate.  An Oracle ACE offers these notes:

In earlier versions of Oracle, the cost calculation did not change when the stopkey was added to the plan:

alter session set optimizer_features_enable='9.2.0';

select visit_id from pat_visit v, patient p where p.pat_id=v.pat_id and rownum <=1000000

ID    PID    Operation                                    Name                    Rows    Bytes    Cost    IO Cost    Temp space
0        SELECT STATEMENT                                                    1000K    15M    4890     4890      
1    0      COUNT STOPKEY                              
2    1        HASH JOIN                                                               4990K    76M    4890     4890     16M
3    2          INDEX FAST FULL SCAN    XPKPATIENT        1000K    4882K    286     286      
4    2          TABLE ACCESS FULL    PAT_VISIT                    5000K    52M    2598     2598      

alter session set optimizer_features_enable='9.2.0';

select visit_id from pat_visit v, patient p where p.pat_id=v.pat_id;

ID    PID    Operation                                Name                    Rows    Bytes    Cost    CPU Cost    IO Cost   
0        SELECT STATEMENT                                                4990K    76M    4890          4890                           
1    0      HASH JOIN                                                              4990K    76M    4890          4890     16M                     
2    1        INDEX FAST FULL SCAN    XPKPATIENT       1000K    4882K    286          286                           
3    1        TABLE ACCESS FULL    PAT_VISIT                    5000K   52M        2598          2598

Note the different behavior in  Also, note that the optimizer is smart enough in 10.2.0 to realize it doesn't even need to look at the patient table.  In version prior to 10.2.0, the cost calculation will remain the same with or without the rownum qualifier. 

However, in the execution phase, the version with the rownum qualification will run faster, if rownum is set to significantly fewer rows than the query would otherwise retrieve.

In 10.2.0 and later, the rownum value will affect the actual cost calculation for the plan, as well as reduce the run time for the query. 

alter session set optimizer_features_enable='';

select visit_id from pat_visit v, patient p where p.pat_id=v.pat_id and rownum <= 100000;

ID    PID    Operation                        Name                Rows    Bytes    Cost    CPU Cost    IO Cost    Temp space    IN-OUT    PQ Dist    PStart    PStop
0        SELECT STATEMENT                                    100K    1074K    96     21M            95                           
1    0      COUNT STOPKEY                                                        
2    1        TABLE ACCESS FULL    PAT_VISIT    100K    1074K    96     21M               95

select visit_id from pat_visit v, patient p where p.pat_id=v.pat_id ;

ID    PID    Operation                         Name              Rows    Bytes    Cost    CPU Cost    IO Cost    Temp space    IN-OUT    PQ Dist    PStart    PStop
0        SELECT STATEMENT                                5000K    52M    4699     1G    4635                            
1    0      TABLE ACCESS FULL    PAT_VISIT    5000K    52M    4699     1G    4635

Alternatives to rownum

Using rownum is very dangerous, especially in the hands of beginners, and there are always alternatives to using rownum: 
  • The WITH clause - Another approach to tuning rownum queries is to separate-out the subquery using the powerful WITH clause.  Another benefit of separating-out the sorted subquery is that you can easily apply either a parallel hint or an index hint, if it's faster to retrieve the rows in pre-sorted order.

  • The rank or row_number analytics - You can replace rownum in top-n queries with analytics functions, using rank() or row_number()  instead, getting the same top-in result, but with much faster response time.

  • Optimizer goal hint - In cases where rownum is used to change the optimizer mode to first_rows_n, it may be possible to negate this effect by using an all_rows hint.

  • Index hint - In cases where rownum is used to force an index in a subquery, again, deploy an index hint to duplicate the faster execution plan.

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