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Don Burleson Blog 







RMAN cold backup tips 

Oracle Database Tips by Donald BurlesonFebruary 12, 2015

Question:  How do I perform a cold backup in RMAN?
Answer:  Here is how to perform an Offline (Cold) Backup of your Database with RMAN

RMAN Offline Backup

Recall that an offline backup is a backup of the database while it is not running. Hence, to perform our backup we will shutdown the database from RMAN and then mount the database. We will perform the backup. Once the backup is complete we will restart the database again. Here is an example of this process:

RMAN>shutdown immediate

RMAN>startup mount

RMAN>backup database;

RMAN>sql 'alter database open';

Once this process is complete, you have completed your first backup.

In this section we will show you how to perform an offline (or cold) backup using RMAN. This will require that the database be down (that's why it's called an offline backup). Oracle supports online backups also, and we will be covering these shortly.

Before we can use RMAN we need to configure a few settings. In this section we will look at configuring the database for our backup, and then we will proceed to do the backup.

Configure Oracle and RMAN for Backup

Before we can use RMAN we will need to configure a few settings. In this section we will assume:

1. That you will be backing up to a file system called /u01/app/oracle/backup. You will need to create this file system if it does not already exist.

2. That you are using an SPFILE.

Note that if you created your database as we described earlier in the book, you should already be using an SPFILE.

The configuration is pretty basic. First, we need to configure a couple of database parameters. These parameters will configure the Flash Recovery Area of the database.

This is the location that all the disk backups will be made to. To configure the flash recovery area we will use the alter system command to set the value of two database parameters:

* db_recovery_file_dest - Determines the location of the flash recovery area.

* db_recovery_file_dest_size - Determines how much space can be used by Oracle in the flash recovery area.

We will configure the flash recovery area to the value of /u01/app/oracle/backup, and we will assign it a 2 Gigabyte limit. Note! Oracle flash recovery area re-named to fast recovery area

You may need to assign your flash recovery area more space depending on the following factors:

* The size of your database

* The number of backups you want to keep

* If you are running your database in ARCHIVELOG mode (which we will discuss later in this chapter).

Here is an example of configuring the flash recovery area for the settlings listed previously. This assumes your database is using a SPFILE which we discussed in earlier chapters:

Alter system set db_recovery_file_dest='/u01/app/oracle/backup';

Alter system set db_recovery_file_dest_size=2G;

We will also want to set a couple of RMAN settings before we do our first backup. Start RMAN as detailed earlier in this section with:

$ rman target /

Now, we want to configure the following:

* Automatic backups of the control file and SPFILE.

* Retention policy to a redundancy of 2

Next, we can use the RMAN configure command to configure these settings as seen in this example:

-- Configure the retention policy to redundancy of 2.
-- This means RMAN will try to keep 2 copies of the database backups.
RMAN> configure retention policy to redundancy 2;
-- Configure automated backups of the control file and SPFILE.
RMAN>configure controlfile autobackup on;

Now that RMAN and the database are configured, we are ready to proceed to backup the database.

Also, see my notes on the different backup types and the differences between incremental cumulative and incremental differential backups.

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