Oracle Database Tips by Donald Burleson
It is strongly suggested that the DBA use the
installation guide provided by Oracle for his or her own release of the
operating system in use. The following procedure should be regarded only as a
general set of guidelines; it is not intended to replace the installation
procedures provided by Oracle.
Example Installation of Oracle9i Using the Linux
Before you can successfully install and operate Oracle
on the Linux operating system, you must be sure that you meet all the required
prerequisites to do so. These prerequisites are specified in the Oracle9i
installation guide for Linux, which is available online at technet.oracle.com.
Always check the latest version of the operating guide, as these requirements
may change from release to release and, of course, between different operating
systems. Table 1.2 shows the suggested kernel parameters for the UNIX and other
systems for Oracle9i release 9.0.1, as of 8/13/2001.
Table 1.2 Sample Changes to UNIX System
Shared Memory and Semaphore Parameters
Linux 7.1 (SuSE)
33554432 (no larger than 512MB)
As you can see from examining the values for
different operating systems in Table 1.2, many parameters are similar, but some
vary greatly. Operating systems such as NT, W2K (Windows 2000), and AIX have
fewer tunable parameters because they do automatic tuning of their internals.
You will need to consult the system administrator
or the system specific installation documents to determine how to adjust the
parameters on your system. On some, it may be as easy as a change to a
configuration file and a reboot; others may require a complete relink and
replacement of the kernel executable.
Once the kernel has been properly baseline-tuned,
you need to examine the available disk assets and determine which will be used
for Oracle. On UNIX or Linux, you (or the system administrator) will need to
create mount points to structure the Oracle file systems the way you want. On
other systems, such as NT or W2K, you will need to allocate directories for use
Following the disk asset setup, you are ready to
install Oracle. This is usually accomplished from one of two possible sources:
either you have a distribution CD set or you have downloaded the compressed
image files from the technet.oracle.com or Oracle store Web sites.
If you have the distribution CD set, you simply
mount the first CD in the CD-ROM drive and use the appropriate command to
execute the runInstaller program. The runInstaller program on the UNIX systems
will normally be located in the install/os_typ directory on the CD-ROM, where
the os_type is the name of the operating system (such as Sun or Linux) and may
include a version designation. Do not, on UNIX systems, use the "cd" command to
place your user in the top level of the CD-ROM directory structure. The Oracle9i
and Oracle8i (starting with 8.1.7) installation involves multiple CD-ROMs, if
you are located in the top-level directory when you launch the runInstaller
program, it will lock this directory and you will not be able to unmount the
CD-ROM to change to the second or third CDs as requested by the installation
procedure. Instead, stay in the Oracle users home directory and simply issue the
full path command to run the installer, for example:
The installer will welcome you to the Oracle
Universal Installer, or OUI for short. An example of this is shown in Figure
Figure 1.4 Oracle Universal Installer Welcome screen.
If you need to deinstall any older versions of
Oracle, you can choose the Deinstall Products button or just choose to see the
installed products (if any). Otherwise, choose the Next button. The next screen
displayed will be the file source and Oracle Home selection screen. If the
defaults are correct, choose Next; or make the needed changes and then select
Next. This is shown in Figure 1.5.
Figure 1.5 Oracle Universal Installer File Locations
The next screen lists the three possible
installation options: Oracle9i Database 188.8.131.52.0, Oracle9i Client 184.108.40.206.0, or
Oracle9i Management and Integration 220.127.116.11.0. The Oracle9i Database 18.104.22.168.0
option installs the complete database suite, the client, and the Management and
Integration suites. The Oracle9i Client 22.214.171.124.0 option installs the enterprise
management tools, networking services, utilities, development tools, and basic
client software. The Oracle9i 126.96.36.199.0 Management and Integration option
installs the management server, management tools, Oracle Internet Directory,
Oracle Integration Server, networking servers, utilities, and basic client
software. Select the option you desire, then select the next button. This screen
is shown in Figure 1.6.
Figure 1.6 Oracle Universal Installer Available Products
The next screen shows the options for the types
of database that can be installed: Enterprise, Standard, or custom. Enterprise
allows access to virtually all options (except RAC); Standard has a restricted
set of options; and custom allows the options installed to be user selectable.
Choose the type of install desired and select the Next button. For our example
install we will choose the Enterprise Install. Figure 1.7 shows this screen.
Figure 1.7 Oracle Universal Installer Installation Types
The next screen shows the Database Configuration
options. The database configuration options are General Purpose, Transaction
Processing, Data Warehouse, Customized, or Software Only. Select the option you
wish and then select Next. The Software Only option is the only one where no
database is installed; use it when migration of an existing database will be
performed as a part of the Oracle9i installation. This is shown in Figure 1.8.
Figure 1.8 Oracle Universal Installer Database
The next screen of the installation routine
allows you to specify a name for the database if you choose to install a new
database. Specify the name and domain name for your database; the program will
strip off the domain to specify a system identifier (SID) for the database. The
normal format for the domain is sid.domain. Select the Next button when you are
satisfied with the SID and domain specification. Figure 1.9 shows this screen.
Figure 1.9 Oracle Universal Installer Database
Next, you will choose the character set to use in
the database that you will be creating (if you choose to create a database). The
selections available are:
* Use the default from the settings of the Operations
* Use Unicode (UTF8) as the setting (if you wish to
support multiple languages in the database you are creating choose this one).
* Choose one of the common character sets from a drop
If your character set of choice is not shown in
the drop-down list, you must use the Previous button, then choose Custom
database to get a wider selection. When you have made your choice of the
database character set, select the Next button. This screen is shown in Figure
Figure 1.10 Oracle Universal Installer Database
Character Set screen.
The next screen allows you to enter the location
of the Java Developer Kit (JDK). You must have at least version JDK1.1.8, which
is available from www.blackdown.com or the SUN Web site. The standard location
for a normal installation of the JDK is /usr/lib/jkd1.1.8; if yours is
different, make sure to enter it properly. If you are not sure where your JDK is
located, ask your system administrator or start another terminal window and use
the find command from the root directory to locate it for example:
$ cd /
$ find . -name jdk* -print
These commands should give you the full path location of
the JDK on UNIX or Linux. On Windows, use the find drop-down item on the File
menu. The JDK screen is shown in Figure 1.11.
Figure 1.11 Oracle Universal Installer JDK Home
The next screen shows a summary of what you will
be installing if you proceed. If everything looks correct, select the Install
button and installation will commence. This summary screen is shown in Figure
Figure 1.12 Oracle Universal Installer Summary screen.
The install progress screen (Figure 1.13) will be
shown next. It will display a dialog that shows which options and products are
being installed and which actions are being performed. Once all install
operations are complete, the Setup Privileges dialog box (Figure 1.14) will be
displayed. At this point, you will need to start a second display in UNIX or
Linux and log in as the root user. In the ORACLE_HOME location, a root.sh script
will be created; this script must be run before continuing the installation.
Once the script has been run as root, click on the OK button to continue the
Figure 1.13 Oracle Universal Installer Install status
Figure 1.14 Oracle Universal Installer Setup Privileges
The Configuration Tools screen is shown next. It
shows the status of the various tools used to configure NET8/9, the Web server
and the Oracle database. This is shown in Figure 1.15. When the database
configuration assistant starts, you will see a status window showing the results
of copying the Oracle base datafiles into your environment. These files are used
as a "seed" database to quickly start a new instance. Rather than create a new
database, load the database with the various configuration scripts. Next Oracle
copies the basic tablespaces from compressed jar files to your system, then uses
the control file rebuild command to give the database the name you have
selected. This database configuration assistant is shown in Figure 1.16.
Figure 1.15 Oracle Universal Installer Configuration
Tools status screen.
Figure 1.16 Database Configuration Assistant file copy
The second screen in the Configuration Assistant
allows you to perform password management and selective account lock/unlock
tasks against the new database. This is a welcome new feature, as previous
Oracle systems set the passwords on critical Oracle accounts the same as the
user name and gave little guidance on how to reset the passwords. The
password/account management screen is shown in Figure 1.17.
Figure 1.17 Database Configuration Assistant password
If you choose to change the passwords and lock
configuration for the default Oracle accounts (which is strongly recommended),
select the Password Management button on the screen in Figure 1.17. Selection of
this option will display the Password Management dialog box that contains a
table of the default accounts, their lock status, and the entry points for their
new passwords. Fill in the password management/lock table as needed for your
system; then select the OK button. This screen is shown in Figure 1.18.
Figure 1.18 Oracle Password Management screen.
Once the default account passwords and lock
status have been updated, the installation completes, marked by display of the
End of Installation screen, shown in Figure 1.19. Select the Exit button from
this screen to return to the command line.
Figure 1.19 Oracle Universal Installer End of
The next section of this chapter deals with
migration from previous versions of Oracle to Oracle9i.