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Oracle Database Tips by Donald Burleson


Foreach Statement

The foreach statement is used and created for the sole purpose of looping through arrays.  Just as there are arrays indexed by numbers and others indexed by strings, there are two forms of the foreach statement as well:

          foreach ($array as $val) {
       statement block;


    foreach ($array as $key => $val) {
       statement block;

There are several things to be noted regarding the foreach statement such as the following:

  • The variables from the loop head ($key and $val) are not defined before or after the loop. They are local to the loop.

  • The loop variables are copies of the array elements. In PHP4, there is no way to modify such behavior. PHP5 allows use of the "reference" construct to make the variable point to the actual array values and not copies.  The reference construct reads like this: foreach($array as &$val) {.... }.  The ampersand character (&) denotes a reference to the value. In PHP5, the variable $val points to the actual array value instead of a copy of it.

The following is an example of this:

Example 6:

    $ cat example6.php
    foreach($A as &$arr) {
      // Here we multiply each element of the array $A
      // by 3. The "*=" operator means $arr = $arr*;
      // That is just a convenient abbreviation also
      // applicable to other operators like +,- or .
        $arr *= 3;
    foreach($A as $arr) {
   echo "A[$i]=$arr\n";

  • The lines starting with "//" are comments. PHP recognizes both C++ style comments such as "//" and C style comments, enclosed within /* and */   delimiters.

When executed, this script produces the following result:

Example 6(Cont.):

$ ./example6.php

In the first "foreach" loop, every element is multiplied by 3 (PHP interpreter version 5.02 is used to execute this example) using the "reference" notation.  The second loop simply printed the array. Below is the HTML version of the same script:

Example 6a

  <title>Example 6a</title>


  foreach($A as &$arr) {
     $arr *= 3;

  <h3>HTML version of the example 6a</h3>
  foreach($A as &$arr):
    A[<?= $i++ ?>] = <?=$arr?> <br>
   endforeach; ?>

When executed in browser, the script above gives the following result shown on the picture below:

See code depot for complete scripts

This is an excerpt from the book Easy Oracle PHP.  You can get it for more than 30% by buying it directly from the publisher and get instant HTML-DB scripts from the code depot:

Easy Oracle PHP
Create Dynamic Web Pages with Oracle Data

Includes online HTML-DB code depot

Buy it now for 30% off - Only $19.95

HTML-DB support:

For HTML-DB development support just call to gat an Oracle Certified professional for all HTML-DB development projects.



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