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Altering Users 

To create a user, you must have the ALTER USER privilege. You can alter users with the Oracle Enterprise Manager GUI or at the command line in SQL*Plus or Server Manager (SVRMGRL). The command-line syntax for altering a user is:

See Code Depot     

For example:

See Code Depot   

Once a user has been created, the only thing that you cannot alter for that user is the user name. The password, default tablespace, temporary tablespace, and the quota on a tablespace, profile, default role, status, and password expiration can all be altered by someone with the ALTER USER system privilege.     

Each user can alter the Oracle password you initially assigned to that user upon creation, provided that user is not identified externally (via the operating system). In addition to the end user, users with the ALTER USER system privilege can issue the ALTER USER command to change the user's password. The use of operating system authentication can also be changed by a user with the ALTER USER system privilege. Any changes to the password will take effect the next time that user logs in to Oracle.      

When you change the default tablespace for a user, all future objects created by that user will be created in the new default tablespace you designated (unless otherwise specified by the user at the time the object was created). Remember, the user must have a quota in the tablespace to create new objects in that tablespace. If a user reaches the maximum number of bytes assigned (quota), only a user with the ALTER USER system privileges will be able to increase the quota limit for the user.      

The undocumented keyword VALUES allows you to specify the encrypted value of a user's password. This can be handy if the DBA needs to temporarily become a user. You simply capture the encrypted value of the user's password from the SYS.USER$ table, alter the user to a password you know, do what you need to do, then reset the password using this command:

ALTER USER username IDENTIFIED BY VALUES 'encrypted_password';

Note:  As of 12c, the create user xxx identified by values clause will throw a ORA-02153 error.

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