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 UDB EEE Architecture

Oracle RAC Cluster Tips by Burleson Consulting

This is an excerpt from the bestselling book Oracle Grid & Real Application Clusters.  To get immediate access to the code depot of working RAC scripts, buy it directly from the publisher and save more than 30%.

Another competing Parallel Database that follows the Shared Nothing Architecture is DB2 UDB Enterprise-Extended Edition (EEE). This product follows the shared nothing model with each node having its own set of disks. Each instance or node has ownership of a distinct subset of the data and all access to this data is performed by this owning instance. Thus, it is a partition database as shown in Figure 3.13. However, the disks are physically attached to more than one node. In case of a node failure, ownership of disk subsystem moves over to another node.

The basic method UDB (EEE) follows is the distribution of the data and database functions to multiple hosts. It uses a hashing algorithm that enables it to manage the distribution and redistribution of data as required. A database partition is a part of the database that has its own portion of the user data, indexes, configuration files, and transaction logs.

Figure 3.13:  UDB (EEE) Three Node Cluster 

The Shared nothing architecture allows parallel queries to be processed with the minimum of contention for resources between the hosts in the DB2 cluster. Because the number of data partitions has little impact on traffic between hosts, performance scales better in an almost linear manner as more machines are added to the DB2 cluster.

UDB (EEE) uses the concept of function shipping. Function shipping helps in the reduction of network traffic because functions, such as SQL queries, are shipped instead of data. Function shipping means that relational operators are executed on the node or processor containing the data whenever possible. So, the operation or the SQL is moved to where the data resides. Function shipping is well suited to the shared nothing architecture model.

In case of the failure of one node, a pre-configured node takes over the disk system and makes the data available through that node. A Cluster script starts DB2 UDB EEE database partitions on the take-over node. Once this script completes, all the database partitions in the DB2 UDB EEE database are available and processing goes on as usual.

As an example, When RS/6000 SP cluster is implemented with HACMP to support the UDB EEE, nodes are usually configured in three ways:

* Idle Standby - A standby SP node can be provided which will take over the work of a failed SP node. The standby SP node has access to all resources required for the provision of the essential services such as disks, networks, and so on. When the failed SP node is fixed and reintegrated into the cluster, it will reclaim its resources.

* Rotating Standby - A standby SP node is provided to take over the work of a failed SP node, as in the idle standby scenario. However, when the failed SP node is reintroduced, it does not reclaim its resources, but becomes the new standby machine.

* Mutual Takeover - There are no standby SP nodes. All SP nodes are utilized in a normal state. After an SP node failure, the failed SP nodes resources and essential services are taken over by one of the surviving SP nodes in addition to its normal services.

DB2 UDB EEE supports a diverse set of hardware options including SMP, MPP, NUMA, and RISC servers, and clustered configurations with a range of interconnect options. DB2 exploits high-availability solutions on each platform. DB2 UDB EEE can run on multiple operating systems including IBM AIX, Linux, HP-UX, Sun Solaris, and Windows NT.

General Requirements for Parallel Database Clusters

In this section, the following critical issues pertaining to the scalable cluster and the parallel database will be examined:

* Avoiding Split Brain

* I/O Fencing

* Arbitration through Quorum Disks

* Cache Coherency and Lock Management


This is an excerpt from the bestselling book Oracle Grid & Real Application Clusters, Rampant TechPress, by Mike Ault and Madhu Tumma.

You can buy it direct from the publisher for 30%-off and get instant access to the code depot of Oracle tuning scripts.


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