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Before and After Oracle 9i RAC

Oracle RAC Cluster Tips by Burleson Consulting

This is an excerpt from the bestselling book Oracle Grid & Real Application Clusters.  To get immediate access to the code depot of working RAC scripts, buy it directly from the publisher and save more than 30%.

With full implementation of Cache Fusion technology, the Oracle 9i RAC achieved scalable and reliable parallel database status. RAC has removed many management issues and simplified installation procedures. Support for the cluster file system, in addition to the raw devices for the shared disk structures have simplified the physical storage administration. Oracle Enterprise Manager has been made cluster-aware, and thus helps to better administer the RAC database.

Oracle 9i RAC has revamped the Oracle Parallel Server product and the OPS were aptly renamed as Real Application Cluster, hinting at the true parallel cluster. Table 1.2 summarizes the changes that occurred and new terminology used for RAC system.



Block Pinging for synchronization

Uses Cache transfers using the private interconnect

Uses the PCM locking technology

New Methodology using the Global Cache Services (GCS)

Uses Non PCM Locking

New Methodology using the Global Enqueue Service (GES)

Lock Mastering

Resource Mastering ? Locks are treated as resources

Lock Database

Global Resource Directory

OPFS ? Oracle Parallel Fail Safe

RAC Guard product

Fixed, Hashed Locks

Obsolete (mutually exclusive with Cache Fusion)

Parallel Cache management

GCS Block requests

Block Server Process (BSP)

GCS process (LMSn)

Manage by OPSCTL

Manage by SRVCTL

OPS Daemon


DLM (distributed lock manager)

Functionality is bundled under GCS and GES

Table 1.2 Oracle Parallel Server and RAC terminology compared

Oracle 10g RAC Database

The 10g Oracle version has brought in many new and innovative features. The most significant improvements in the 10g Oracle RAC are as follows:

* New concept of Service Registration aiming at helping high availability from the application point of view.

* Cluster Ready Service (CRS) ? This is the portable clusterware Oracle had been promising for a long time. Then there is Oracle Cluster Registry (OCR) for maintaining the configuration information.

* Enhancements regarding tools supporting RAC administration ? DBCA, SRVCTL, DBUA and Enterprise Manager.

* Virtual IP Configuration for a better high availability configuration for the application access.

* Limited Rolling upgrade with opatch tool.

* Better Workload Management and alignment with Oracle Database Resonance Utility with dynamic provision of the nodes in the cluster

* Web-based Enterprise Manager Database Control with which you can manage a RAC database and Enterprise Manager Grid Control for administering multiple RAC databases.

* The Automatic Workload Repository (AWR) to track the performance metrics and provide advice and alerts.

RAC database architecture, installation and configuration, internals of cache fusion, RAC Tuning, backup and recovery etc. will be covered in subsequent chapters.


This is an excerpt from the bestselling book Oracle Grid & Real Application Clusters, Rampant TechPress, by Mike Ault and Madhu Tumma.

You can buy it direct from the publisher for 30%-off and get instant access to the code depot of Oracle tuning scripts.


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Note: This Oracle documentation was created as a support and Oracle training reference for use by our DBA performance tuning consulting professionals.  Feel free to ask questions on our Oracle forum.

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