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The UNIX ls command - list files 
Oracle Tips by Burleson Consulting

 

The UNIX ls command

The UNIX ls command is one of the most frequently used UNIX commands. Without any arguments, the ls command will show us a list of all files in our current directory:

root> ls
Mailbox invalid.sql run_rpt.ksh
ad.sql kill_oracle_sessions.ksh run_trunc.lst
adamf_techeops l.ksh run_trunc.sql
admin list.lst schools.dmp
afiedt.buf list2.lst scripts
arsd.dmp lockee.txt sql
bksel.lst lst.lst sqlnet.log


When we add the a and l arguments, we can see all of the details for each file in out current working directory:

root> ls -al
total 928188
drwxr-xr-x 21 oracle dba 2048 Aug 22 20:47 .
drwxr-xr-x 10 root root 512 Jul 26 08:49 ..
-rw------- 1 oracle qmail 437 Aug 12 20:43 .bash_history
drwxr-xr-x 11 oracle qmail 512 Sep 3 2000 .dt
-rwxr-xr-x 1 oracle qmail 4381 Jul 16 13:20 .profile
-rwxr-xr-x 1 oracle qmail 3648 Sep 1 2000 .profile_old
-rw------- 1 oracle dba 2264 Sep 3 08:06 .sh_history
drwxr-xr-x 2 oracle dba 512 May 10 11:10 .ssh
-rw------- 1 oracle dba 3861 May 29 06:03 Mailbox
-rw-r--r-- 1 oracle dba 12632 Apr 11 16:09 ad.sql
drwxr-xr-x 2 oracle dba 512 Jan 26 2001 adamf_techeops
drwxr-xr-x 5 oracle dba 512 Sep 4 2000 admin
-rwxr-xr-x 1 oracle dba 55 Aug 22 11:56 afiedt.buf


Lets take a look at each of the columns in the ls al command so we understand their meaning.

Column
Data
1
file permissions
3
file owner
4
file group
5
file size
6
last modified date
7
file name

The UNIX ls command

Another very frequently used UNIX command is the ls command.  Without any arguments, the ls command will show a list of all files in the current directory:

root> ls

Mailbox                   invalid.sql               run_rpt.ksh              
ad.sql                    kill_oracle_sessions.ksh  run_trunc.lst            
adamf_techeops             l.ksh                     run_trunc.sql            
admin                     list.lst                  schools.dmp              
afiedt.buf                list2.lst                 scripts                  
arsd.dmp                  lockee.txt                sql                       
bksel.lst                 lst.lst                   sqlnet.log

When the a and l arguments are added, all of the details for each file in the current working directory are shown:

root> ls al

total 928188

drwxr-xr-x  21 oracle   dba         2048 Aug 22 20:47 .
drwxr-xr-x  10 root     root         512 Jul 26 08:49 ..
-rw-------   1 oracle   qmail        437 Aug 12 20:43 .bash_history
drwxr-xr-x  11 oracle   qmail        512 Sep  3  2000 .dt
-rwxr-xr-x   1 oracle   qmail       4381 Jul 16 13:20 .profile
-rwxr-xr-x   1 oracle   qmail       3648 Sep  1  2000 .profile_old
-rw-------   1 oracle   dba         2264 Sep  3 08:06 .sh_history
drwxr-xr-x   2 oracle   dba          512 May 10 11:10 .ssh
-rw-------   1 oracle   dba         3861 May 29 06:03 Mailbox
-rw-r--r--   1 oracle   dba        12632 Apr 11 16:09 ad.sql
drwxr-xr-x   2 oracle   dba          512 Jan 26  2001 adamf_techeops
drwxr-xr-x   5 oracle   dba          512 Sep  4  2000 admin
-rwxr-xr-x   1 oracle   dba           55 Aug 22 11:56 afiedt.buf

Below is a listing of each of the columns in the ls al command so their meaning is understood.

Column

Data

1

File permissions

3

file owner

4

file group

5

file size

6

last modified date

7

file name

Table 2.5:  The Columns in the ls al UNIX Command

The first column in the ls al command shows the file permissions.  The permissions are a set of letters arranged in a group of three, one for the file owner, one for the file group and another for the world (Figure 1-3).

The third and fourth columns of the ls al command lists the owner and group of the file.   Note that if there is super-user authority (root), change the owner and group of any file with the chown command. The fifth column is the file size in bytes, the sixth column lists the last modified date and the last column is the name of the file.

 
 
 
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