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Oracle Data Warehouse Design

Oracle Data Warehouse Tips by Burleson Consulting

Oracle Data Warehouse Design

This chapter focuses on data warehouse design techniques for creating high-performance Oracle warehouses. While traditional online systems design involves the design of the input screens, data structures, and output reports, data warehouse design places the focus on designing flexibility into the Oracle table structures and the creation of flexible query input software. Without an effective database design, no amount of tuning will allow the Oracle warehouse to achieve optimal performance. Hence, it is critical to a database design that we properly design the Oracle table structures and the data input screens.

Normalization And Modeling Theory

Let?s begin by briefly reviewing data modeling theory from a normalization perspective. It is interesting to note that Dr. Codd coined the term normalization in reference to current events of the day. At the time Dr. Codd was developing his mathematical rules for data redundancy, President Nixon was normalizing relations with China. Because Nixon was normalizing relations, Dr. Codd decided that he would also normalize relations as he refined his rules. (I?m not making this up!)

For database systems, a systems developer begins by taking raw, de-normalized relations from a systems analysis. Then, the developer takes the relations to third normal form and looks at the introduction of redundancy for improved performance. Of course, data redundancy becomes even more important for an Oracle warehouse developer than for a traditional OLTP designer, so we will carefully explore the options of table de-normalization in this chapter. In addition, we will also design a method for storing the pre-calculated data summaries that were defined in our systems analysis. Finally, as pointed out in the last chapter, we cannot always predict all the possible combinations of data attributes that will compose aggregate fact tables, so we must design a method for allowing our end users to dynamically define aggregation criteria and store the aggregate values into Oracle tables.

This text does not attempt to fully explore data normalization because dozens of texts are available for that purpose. Instead, this text offers a brief discussion of the normalization process as it applies to our example from Guttbaum?s Grocery.  The processes of normalization was originally intended to be a method for decomposing data structures into their smallest components.  The process begins with the original data structures which are called un-normalized relations, and progresses through first normal for to third normal form.  At this stage the data structures are completely free of redundancy and are at their most decomposed level.  To fully appreciate the process, let?s take a look at the successive process of normalization.

Unnormalized Form

Essentially, an unnormalized relation is a relation that contains repeating values. An unnormalized relation can also contain relations nested within other relations, as well as all kinds of transitive dependencies.  Sometimes unnormalized relations are signified by 0NF, but an unnormalized relation is not to be confused with a denormalized relation.  The unnormalized relation is any relation in its raw state, and they commonly contain repeating vales, and other characteristics that are not found in denormalized relations.  The process of denormalization is a very deliberate attempt to introduce controlled redundant items into an already normalized form.

Today, only a handful of database management systems support repeating values, including UniSQL and some object databases. The relational database model requires that each column within a table contains atomic values, and there is no facility for indexing multiple occurrences of a data item within a table. The idea of repeating groups was first made popular with the use of the Cobol language with IS-AM files. For example, a Cobol working storage definition could allow for repeating occurrences of items, as follows:

03 order_form.
   05 customer_name     pic x(80).
   05 customer_address  pic x(80);
   05 ordered_items occurs from 1 to 10 times depending on number-ordered.
      07 item_number        pic s9(8) comp3.
      07 item_description   pic x(80).
      07 quantity_ordered   pic 9(4).

In any case, relations with repeating groups are not supported by Oracle, and they must be moved into new relations. Here are some relations from Chapter 3 which have repeating groups:

Transaction =
1
{ trans_type = | GC  |, quantity_sold, product_description, total_price },[TZ55]
999            | WT  |
               | N/A |
1
total_sale_amount =  { total_price },
999          

1
grocery_club_discount =  
    { trans_type = | GC |, quantity_sold, product_description, total_discount },
999        

1
total_discount_amount =   {total_discount },
999        

In this case, you can see that a customer transaction consists of many repeating groups, and each of these groups will be moved from the transaction relation. Also, notice that some of the repeating groups, such as total_discount_amount, are derived from the sum of other values in the transaction relation. In those cases, we must make a conscious decision whether to redundantly store these summations or have Oracle compute them at runtime.

First Normal Form

In essence, a relation is in first normal form if it does not contain any repeating values. Here, we have taken our relations with repeating values and moved them to separate relations. When the new relations are created, we carry the primary key of the original relation into the new relation.

Second Normal Form

The purpose of the second normal form (2NF) test is to check for partial key dependencies. Partial key dependencies are created when we break off an unnormalized relation into first normal form by carrying the key, thereby creating a concatenated key with several data items. The formal definition of second normal form is as follows:

A relation is in second normal form if and only if the relation is in first normal form and each no-key attribute is fully functionally dependent on the entire concatenated key.

However, I prefer the following definition:

A relation is in second normal form if each attribute depends on the key, the whole key, and nothing but the key, so help me Codd.

It should be apparent that the second normal form test only applies to relations that have more than one key field. A relation in first normal form that only has one key is automatically in second normal form if each attribute is functionally dependent on the key.

In the following example, we see partial dependencies, where an attribute is functionally dependent on only one key field. In this type of situation, the partial dependency is moved to another relation.

Report_card = Student_num, course_num, course_name, grade

In this case, we see that grade depends on both Student_num and course_num, because you must know both the student and the course to know the grade. course__name, on the other hand, is fully functionally dependent only on the course_num key and does not require Student_num.

Third Normal Form

The third normal form (3NF) test refers to transitive dependencies. A transitive dependency is a circumstance where one non-key attribute is functionally dependent on another no-key attribute. Whereas the 2NF test serves to check for dependencies between key fields and attribute fields, the 3NF test serves to check for dependencies between no-key attributes.

Entity/Relation Modeling

If we have followed the process for normalization through third normal form, we will be able to derive an entity/relation model that is essentially free of redundant information (see Figure 4.1). The entity/relation model was first introduced by Professor Emeritus Peter Chen from the University of Louisiana, and it is sometimes called a Chen diagram. In the 15 years since the introduction of this model, many permutations have been created, but the basic principles of entity/relations modeling remain intact.

Figure 4.1  An entity/relation model for Guttbaum?s Grocery.

But is the E/R model for Guttbaum?s Grocery truly free from data redundancy? While the model is free of redundant information, it is impossible to implement the model in a relational database without introducing redundancy to support the data relationships. For example, if Guttbaum?s model was implemented using a pointer-based DBMS, such as IMS, pointers would be used to establish relationships between entities. For relational databases, data columns must be copied as foreign keys to establish data relationships, thereby introducing redundancy.

Also See:

 

 

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