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Don Burleson Blog 







On-Site Oracle RAC Training

© 2016 by Burleson Corporation

Also note our advanced Oracle RAC Tuning Training and our Oracle 10g RAC Training


This course is taught at your Company site with up to 20 students. 

Click here for on-site training prices

Optional supplemental mentoring


Key Features

* Get a complete installation and configuration of Oracle10g Grid and RAC.

* Learn secrets for successful design of Grid clusters

* See expert internals of shared disk technology, raw devices and RAID with Oracle10g Grid.

* Learn internal concurrency, resource coordination and locking mechanisms within Oracle 10g Grid.

* Configure Transparent Application Failover (TAF)

* Understand monitoring and tuning of Oracle Grid applications

* See tricks for using Oracle10g Grid Cluster Guard




This is an intensive 4-day Oracle RAC training in installation, configuration and tuning for RAC.  This course is a comprehensive overview of Oracle RAC and Grid technology.

Unlike other Oracle RAC training classes, this course examines all Oracle RAC & Grid features with an eye on those features that are the most important to your shop.  The course content can be customized according to your specific Oracle RAC configuration.

This Oracle RAC training is special because this course is taught by a veteran Oracle Certified DBA with years of full-time experience.

  Oracle 10g Grid & Real Application Clusters
Oracle10g Grid Computing with RAC

Mike Ault, Madhu Tumma

ISBN 0-9744355-4-6

This RAC training course is designed for practicing Oracle professionals who have basic experience with Oracle. Prior experience with Oracle is not required, but experience using Oracle database is highly desirable.


This Oracle Grid training was designed by Donald K. Burleson.  Author of more than 30 database books, Burleson was chosen by Oracle Press to write five authorized editions, including Oracle High-Performance SQL tuning. Burleson Corporation instructors offer decades of real world DBA experience in Oracle features, and they will share their Oracle secrets in this intense Oracle training

Oracle Grid Configuration & Internals

Copyright © 2016 by Donald K. Burleson


Introduction to RAC and Grid Computing

What is Grid Computing?

Where is the IT world on Oracle Grid Computing?
What is the Oracle's direction?
Why this new found love for Grid Computing !!

Grid Types –
Discussion - Different Classification Systems
Computational grids,
Scavenging grids
Data Grids

Nature of Data Grid and Federation of Databases
What is the difference between a Grid and Cluster?

Introduction to Cluster Technology
Introduction to Oracle Real Application Cluster

The Dynamic Business Environment
Justification for HPC and HA Systems
Benefits of Real Application Clusters (RAC)

Suitability of Oracle RAC to be a Grid Resource

Where does 10g RAC stand Now
Evolution from OPS
9iRAC and now 10G RAC

Computing Trends
Utility Computing
On-Demand Computing

Role of Blade Frame Server
Dynamism of Servers

High Performance and Highly Available Database Clusters

High Performance
Growth of Powerful Processors
Why Parallel Processing?
Opportunities for Parallelism

Parallel Databases
Types of Parallelism

High Performance Computing Clusters - HPCC

Clusterize Applications
When do you need to to clusterize
How do you Clusterize Applications?

Highly Available Databases
Highly Available Data
Reliability and Serviceability
Fault Tolerant Systems
Database Availability

Clustered Systems

Database Issues

Oracle RAC
A truly High Performance and Highly Available Database

Overview of the Cluster Technology
How Clusters Differ from Distributed Systems
Clusters are Different from Fault-Tolerant Systems
Why Clusters?
Cluster Objectives

Types of Clusters
Failover Clusters
Scalable High Performance Clusters
Application Server Clusters
Other Types of Clusters

Components of a Cluster
Cluster Nodes
Emerging Server Cluster Architectures
Cluster Interconnect
Cluster Interconnect Products
Infiniband Interconnect
Essentials for Parallel Database Clusters
Concurrent Database Access

Failover Database Clusters
Resources, Resource Types
Resource Groups
The Concept of a Virtual Server
Failover Process
Failover Cluster Architecture
Oracle Database Service in HA Cluster
Issues with FO Clusters - Hidden Risks

Parallel Database Clusters
Shared-Nothing Model
Shared-Disk Model
Microsoft SQL Server Federated Database IBM Offerings
Requirements for Parallel Clusters
Oracle’s Instance Membership Recovery
Cache Coherency and Lock Management

Grid Enabled Clusters
Handling unpredictable usage patterns



Grid Computing and the Role of Clusters

Grid and Cluster
Collection of computing resources - Grid
Aggregation of Nodes - Clustering

Nature of these two architectures
Nodes in the Clusters with Cluster software
Nodes in the Grid with Grid Management Software
Logical or Virtual Grid – as seen by Application

Discuss from authors point of view

Three-Point Check for Grid proposed by Ian Foster

Real Application Cluster Architecture

Overview of Oracle Real Application Cluster
Evolution Real Application Cluster – The flag ship option of Oracle Database
First Incarnation as Oracle Parallel Server – OPS
Changes in 8i Release – OPS
Changes in 9i Release – RAC
Full Implementation of Cache Fusion
Introduction of Real Application Cluster – 9i RAC (Re-Christened as RAC)
New Features in 10g RAC Release

RAC Database Architecture
RAC Instance and RAC Database
· Discuss Nature and Differences
· Multi-Instance Database
Basic Database Processes
Basic Internal Structures
RAC Additional Processes
RAC Additional SGA Areas
Global Cache Service - GCS
Global Enqeue Service - GES
Resource Modes and Roles
Global Resource Directory

Cluster Ready Services
Primary CRS resources
Virtual IP Address (Session Alias
Database Composite Resource Group
Service Composite Resource Group
Net Listeners
Oracle Cluster Registry – OCR
OCR Clients: CSSD, CRSD, EVMD, and the EVM Logger daemons
CRS Profiles

Cluster Synchronization Services (CSS)
New cluster manager for all platforms
Cluster Synchronization Service Daemon (OCSSD) for Unix

GSI - Grid Security Infrastructure

RAC Server Components
Hosts and Blades
Server Redundancy
Necessity of Server Redundancy
Redundancy Features

RAC Disk System
Shared Storage – Components to reside on
Raw Partitions
Cluster File System

10g Automatic Storage Management – ASM
Logic behind this approach
Benefits – reduction layers
Issues one can anticipate
How does it compare with Volume Manager Controlled Volumes

Storage Technology and Redundancy
Basics of Storage Disk System
Understanding I/O Path
Host Bus Adapter (HBA
Storage Redundancy Components
Multiple RAID Controllers and Storage Processors
Power Management
High Availability with SAN
RAID and RAID Administration
Multiple Access Paths to Host
Logical Volume Manager

Cluster File System
Oracle10g RAC and CFS
Context Dependent Symbolic Link - CDSL
Veritas CFS
PolyServe Matrix Server (MxS)
HP Tru64 CFS

Oracle Cluster File System (OCFS)
Growth and changes over the last two years
Can it be a true general file system
New features on OCFS 2.0
Other CFS solutions
NFS as viable Cluster File system

Oracle Managed Files

Oracle Disk Manager
API developed by Oracle

RAC Installation and Configuration

Preparation of Environment
Fits in to the Grid
Guidelines and Best Practices
Certification Matrix

Installation and Components
Servers and Operating system
Interconnect and Cluster_Interconnect parameter
Cluster Software Installation
Shared Storage
Work out the Raw Devices or CFS Files – General Discussion

General Steps
Phase – 1
Phase – 2
Phase – 3

On Solaris Servers
Hardware / System Details
Creating the Cluster Using Sun Cluster 3.1
Install the Volume Manager
Install the Clusterware (OSD) for RAC
Configure Shared Storage
Veritas Cluster Volume Management
UNIX Pre-Installation Steps
Using Veritas DBE/Advanced Cluster
Communication Stack
Shared Storage Configuration
VCS Framework and Service Groups
Veritas I/O Fencing and SCSI-3 Persistency
Install DBE/AC and Configure Service Groups – First Stage
Install DBE/AC and Configure Service Groups – Second Stage

Using HP Tru64 Unix
Hardware / System Details
Set up Disks
Creating the Cluster

Using HP-UX Clusters
Hardware / System Details
Creating the Cluster
Shared Storage Configuration
Configure HP ServiceGuard Cluster
UNIX Pre-installation Tasks
Using Veritas DBE/Advance Cluster on HP-UX Servers

Using IBM AIX Servers
Hardware / System Details
What is VSD?
Configure using HACMP/ES
General Parallel File System - GPFS
Oracle Installation

Using Windows Cluster
Hardware / System Details
Creating the Cluster
Configure Shared Storage
Special Notes for NFS based shared Installation

On Linux Based Systems
Install and Configuration
• Red Hat
• United Linux
Hardware / System Details
Interconnect & Cluster Software
Shared Storage Volumes
Oracle Cluster File System (OCFS)
PolyServe Matrix Server
FireWire Drive as Shared Storage
Emphasize and Discuss the O C F S growth and Adaptability
What is coming in OCFS 2.0
Oracle Software Installation and Creation of Database
Oracle Software Installation
Database Creation using DBCA
• Support Automatic Storage Management (ASM) (NEW feature)
• Support for Oracle File Manager (OMF) (NEW feature)
Database Creation Manually
Adding Threads and expanding Instances

Dynamic Node Management
Suggestions and Planning

Cache Fusion and Inter-Instance Coordination

Overview of Cache Fusion
Evolution of Cache Fusion
Nature of Cache Fusion
Benefits of Cache Fusion
Concurrency and Consistency
Cache Coherency
Global Cache Service

SGA Components and Locking
SGA – System Global Area
Program Global Area (PGA)
Buffer Cache Management
What is a Dirty Block?
Multi-Version Consistency Model

RAC Components
Global Cache Service
Global Enqueue Service
Row-Level Locks

Global Resource Directory

Resource Coordination Synchronization
GCS Resource Modes and Roles
Concept of Past Image
Lock Modes
Block Access Modes and Buffer States

Cache Fusion Scenarios
Block Transfers using Cache Fusion - Examples
Block Access, Grants, and Interrupts

Cache Fusion and Recovery
Recovery Features
Recovery Methodology and steps
Recovery Process
Re-mastering Resources

RAC Administration

Parameter Management
RAC and Initialization Parameters

Password File Management

UTIL_DIR location

UNDO Management
Undo Management in RAC
UNDO Tablespace Features
System Rollback Segment

Concept of Thread
Thread Features
Redo Thread Maintenance

Segment Space Management
Automatic Segment Space Management
Manual Space Management

Oracle Managed Files
Utility of OMF
Format and Syntax

External Tables
Use of external tables
Relevance of Shared Storage for locating external tables

7.9 Server Control Utility
srvctl add
srvctl config
srvctl getenv
srvctl setenv
srvctl start
srvctl status
srvctl stop

Using SQL*Plus
Starting the database in Cluster mode

Using Oracle Enterprise Manager
Configuration of OEM with RAC
Managing with GRID Control Utility

Cluster Ready Services CRS
Profiles administration

Transparent Application Failover - TAF

Overview of Transparent Application Failover
Load Balancing
Example listener.ora
Example tnsnames.ora
Dynamic Registration (new section)

Example TAF Configurations
TAF with Connect-Time Failover and Client Load Balancing
Configuring TAF to Retry a Connection
Configuring TAF for Pre-Establishing Connections
Verifying TAF Configurations
Using Instance Role for Configuring the Primary and Secondary Instance
Connection to Instance Role Type
Establishing a Connection to a Specific Instance
Using BACKUP with TAF Pre-Establishing a Connection

Using OCI Driver
An example showing the TAF



Grid Application Deployment

Database Consolidation
E-business Applications

RAC Suitability
Advantages of the RAC database
Unpredictable Loads
High Availability

Application Deployment Issues
OLTP applications using ‘exclusive’ or specific data
Departmental Applications
Data warehousing Applications

Applications requiring HA
Large Batch jobs
Using Parallel Instance Groups

RAC Suitability for Packaged Applications
SAP and Real Application Clusters
Status of Oracle RAC/SAP certification
Performance considerations
Siebel and RAC
Oracle eBusiness Suite

Middleware Software
JDBC Connectivity
JDBC Thin Driver
JDBC Oracle Call Interface Driver
JDBC Server-Side Internal Driver
Web Logic and RAC database

Oracle 10g Grid Design Considerations

Designing Equipment for Real Application Clusters
What are the effects of component failure?
• Failure of the Internet or Intranet
• Failure of the firewall
• Failure of the Application Server
• Failure of the Database Server
• Failure of the fabric switch
• SAN Failure
• NICs
Provide Redundancy at Each Level

Designing for High Performance
Confining Transactions to Specific Nodes
Creating Efficient RAC Data Objects
Proper Sequence Usage

Tablespace Design in Real Application Clusters
Extent Management and Locally Managed Tablespaces
• Identifying Extent Management Issues
• Minimizing Extent Management Operations
• Using Locally Managed Tablespaces

Minimizing Table Locks to Optimize Performance
Disabling Table Locks for Individual Tables
Setting DML_LOCKS to Zero

Performance for Object Creation in Real Application Clusters

Oracle 10g Grid Backup and Recovery

Overview of RAC & Grid Backup and Recovery
Discussion – Instance Failure v/s Media Failure
Export – Logical Backup
Cold Backup using Scripts
Hot Backup Using Scripts
RMAN (Recovery Manager)
Third Party Solutions
How do the things change with A S M?

Backup of RAC database
Using RMAN for Backups
Backup Procedures for RMAN and RAC

Recovery in the RAC Environment
Media Recovery in RAC Instances
Using RMAN to Recover a RAC Environment
Recovery in an OCFS Environment
Recovery in a Raw File System Environment
Parallel Recovery

Standby Databases in RAC Configuration
Setting up a Standby Database For a RAC Cluster
Configuration when the Standby Database is also a Cluster (RAC-) System
Log Shipping when the Standby Database is a Single Node System
Cross-Instance Archival
Archive Log Gap Resolution and FAL

Tips on using backup with Storage replication
Hitachi Storage
EMC Storage
Using Veritas Volume Replicator

Oracle Grid Performance Tuning

Analysis of Performance Issues

Using Automated Memory Management (AMM) with RAC

Disk Monitoring and Tuning for RAC and ASM

Monitoring RAC Cluster Interconnect Performance
Undesirable Global Cache Statistics
Monitoring CURRENT Blocks
Additional Wait Events of Concern

Global Cache Service Times

GCS Monitoring
Use of the "CACHE_TRANSFER" Views
Monitoring the GES Processes
Monitoring the Global Directory

Monitoring and Tuning RAC using OEM

Configuring the Oracle Intelligent Agent With RAC
Step-By-Step Setup of the Intelligent Agents on UNIX

Monitoring RAC Using OEM

Tuning Guidelines

Oracle RAC Grid Cluster Guard

Using RAC Cluster Guard

Examining the Basics of Cluster Guard Technology
Oracle Real Application Clusters Guard Packs
The RAC Guard PFSCTL Control Utility
The Oracle Real Application Clusters Guard Monitors
Oracle Real Application Clusters Guard Configuration Templates

Concepts of Oracle Real Application Clusters Guard
Primary and Secondary Instance Roles
Preferred Primary and Secondary Nodes
Definition of the Home and Foreign Nodes

Architecture of Oracle Real Application Clusters Guard 558
Oracle Real Application Clusters Guard Packs
Using the RAC Cluster Guard Command Line Utility
Recovering from an Unplanned Outage on One Node
Recovering from Unplanned Outages on Both Nodes
Configuring the Call-Home Feature
Enhancing Application Failover with Role Change Notification

ORATAB File Entries for Oracle RAC Guard

Using dbms_libcache to Warm the Secondary Cache
Overview of Warming the Library Cache
Use of the dbms_libcache Package
Managing the Oracle Real Application Clusters Guard Log Files
What if a Failover Occurs while Datafiles are in Backup Mode?

Oracle10g Grid Advanced Topics

Migration to RAC environment
Moving Single Instance to RAC
• Decision to migrate to a RAC database
• Obtain the necessary server hardware infrastructure
• Procedure - A
• Procedure - B

Upgrading Oracle to 10.x
Moving HA cluster to a RAC cluster
• Procedure to move the VCS to Veritas DBE/AC RAC
• Migration Features
Packaged Applications
• In case of SAP applications
• Verification Process
• Upgrade SAP Software and Tools
In case of Oracle eBusiness Suite

Convert from Raw Partition to OCFS based infrastructure
Using Transportable Tablespaces - RMAN

Storage Replication in RAC Environment
EMC SRDF implementation in RAC environment
Hitachi replication

Blade Servers
How do they help in node dynamism
Survey of blade architecture
Case Study of E-genera Bladeframe implementing RAC solution

Switched Computing and its role in RAC environment
Top Spin switches
Where is infiniband

Oracle10g GridParallel Execution

Types of Parallelism
Inter-Query and Intra Query-Parallelism
Parallelism in Oracle Relational Database

Parallel Execution Mechanism
Granules for Parallelism
Parallel Execution Servers
Degree of Parallelism – DOP

Parallel Operations
Parallel Query: SELECT
Parallel DML – update, Merge, Delete
Parallel DML – Insert …. Select
Parallel DDL Statements
Rules for Parallelizing “Create Table as Select” (CTAS)

SQL*LOADER – parallel load
Using concurrent conventional path loads
Parallel Direct Path Load

Other Parallel Operations
Parallel Recovery
Using Fast-Start Parallel Rollback
Replication – Parallel Propagation

Oracle RAC and Inter-Instance parallelization
Initialization Parameters at Glance
Monitoring and Diagnosing the Parallel Execution

The Grid Computing Paradigm

Introduction to Grid: Grid computing as the next evolution of the Internet.
Leveraging Commodity Components
Concept of building super size computers using cheap, off the shelf components is proven by supercomputers built on Intel/Linux platform.
Why Grid ? Utilizing unused resources ( capacity built for peaks, lying around unused )

Grid Case Studies (In brief)
Business applications (Platform Computing etc)
Scientific applications ( CERN openlab for DataGrid applications, Large Hadron Collider project; SETI@Home)

Grid Standards
The Role of OGSA - Open Grid Services Architecture
The OGSA Service Model
Database as a Service with in the grid

What is Global Grid Forum?

What is Globus?

What is Globus Toolkit?

The Role of OGSA - Open Grid Services Architecture
OGSA ( Open Grid Services Architecture ) integrates Globus and Web services:
The OGSA Service Model
Database as a Service with in the grid
Making existing services readily usable individually or collectively within a Grid framework.

Oracle Grid and Oracle RAC Integration

On-demand Database Service

Oracle Grid Ready Database

Automatic Load balancing of systems

Consolidate and Share

Expanding DB computing resource

Oracle 10g Scheduler

Coordinated scheduling of both computing and database resources
- Is this is a new dbms_job package ? New features/why to use it
- What is program ?
- What is schedule ?
- Creating Schedules
- Altering Schedules
- Dropping Schedules
- Administering Job Classes
- Administering Windows
Administering the Scheduler
Configuring the Scheduler
Monitoring and Managing the Scheduler
How to Monitor and Manage Window and Job Logs
Job Run Logs
How to Change Job Priorities

Data Pump
Data Pump Components
- expdp and impdp
Data Pump New Features
- performance improvement ( now same time for export and import )
- Size estimate
- The ability to restart Data Pump jobs.
- Support for fine-grained object selection, based upon objects and object types ( all with samples )

Oracle Streams
What Can Streams Do?
Why Use Streams?
- Message Queuing
- Data Replication
- Event Management and Notification
- Data Warehouse Loading
- Data Protection
Administration Tools for a Streams Environment
Sample application.

Transfer of data
Fine-grained data transfer ( Oracle Streams )
Bulk data transfers ( Data Pump, Transportable Tablespaces )
Transportable Tablespaces
Used with RENAME TABLESPACE to move data between databases; no platform independent
Step-by-step primer
Limitations/Usefulness summary
Step-by-step primer
How Data Pump, DBMS_FILE_TRANSFER, DBMS_STREAMS_TABLESPACES_ADM interact ? Sample application.

Automatic Provisioning of Oracle RAC Instances
Service Virtualization
Virtualization is the abstraction into a service of every physical and logical entity in a grid. (Further elaborate).
Oracle Portable Clusterware

Workload Management

Discuss the Service concept

Dynamic Allocation

Dynamic Provisioning
- distributing supplies where they are needed.
- Consolidate, share ( transportable tablespaces, Streams ) , and federate information.

This is a BC Oracle training course (c) 2007-2016



Burleson is the American Team

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