Oracle Installation Concepts
We are now ready to move-on and take a look at how to
create and install an Oracle database.
Installing Oracle and Creating a new Oracle Database
In this chapter we will discuss how you install the
Oracle database software and then show you how you create an Oracle database.
Finally, after you have created your Oracle database we will discuss the
SQL*Plus interface to the Oracle database.
Installing and Creating Oracle Databases
Before you can create an Oracle database, you must first
install the database software. The software for Oracle Database 10g comes on
only one CD, so installation is easy. In this section we will discuss what you
need to do before you install the Oracle software and then we will discuss the
installation of the Oracle software.
Before you install the Oracle software, you need to make
sure you are using the right edition and version of Oracle.
There is a separate install guide for each hardware
platform and it?s critical that you read this manual before trying to install
You would be amazed at how many times I?ve seem basic
questions asked in forums where it?s clear the person asking the question had
not read the instillation guide. I?ve been told that the DBA guild is
considering doubling its rates for any emergency calls to fix install disasters,
so read up folks! Let?s get started.
Checking the Edition and Version of Oracle
When preparing to install the Oracle software for the
first time, you need determine the release and features that you desire. When
considering what version of Oracle to use, consider the following issues:
1. Features - Different versions of the Oracle database
software have different functionality. Versions in Oracle are numbered, like
220.127.116.11 or 10.1.0.3, and they indicate the release level of the software. Go to
Oracle?s web site, www.oracle.com, to find out what features are available in
the version of Oracle you are planning to use.
2. Edition - Oracle version is one consideration, but in
each version there are editions that come with different functionality. Make
sure that the features you will need to use are available in your edition of
Oracle. The names change with each release, but Oracle Database 10g comes in
Enterprise Edition, Standard Edition and Personal Edition. Advanced
functionality is missing from Standard Edition (SE) and Express Edition (XE).
3. Version - Make sure that the version you are
installing is still supported by Oracle, and that it will not soon be
de-supported. You should do this because it can be very time consuming (and
sometimes expensive) to migrate to different versions of Oracle.
Choosing your Oracle Features
Many companies that choose to forgo the advanced
features of the Enterprise Edition may save thousands of dollars per year in
licensing fees. The features available in Oracle Enterprise Edition that are not
available in Oracle standard edition (SE), Oracle Express (XE) and Standard
Edition One (SEO) include many features that your application may not require:
* Advanced Replication - This tool provides one-way and
multi-master replication (via database links) for distributed systems using the
* Transparent Application Failover (TAF) - Used to
re-direct in-flight transactions to a failover database in the case of a server
* Fast-start fault recovery - This is a method for
quickly recover and synchronize the Oracle database in cases of hardware
* Oracle Data Guard ? Data Guard is a semi-automated
standby/failover database for database replication.
* Advanced Queuing - A software scheduling package for
advanced scheduling the serialization using the dbms_aqadm package.
* SQL Optimizer Plan Stability (Stored Outlines) - This
is a tool to freeze Oracle execution plans during software upgrades and change
vendor SQL when you cannot tough the source SQL.
* Online index rebuilds - The ability to rebuild an
Oracle index while it is being updated.
* Export transportable tablespaces - This provides the
ability to transfer encapsulated tablespaces between databases.
* Materialized Views - This is a powerful tool to allow
for the pre-summarization of aggregate data (averages, counts, sums) and
pre-join tables together. Materialized views are especially useful in low-update
databases and data warehouses.
* Bitmap indexes - Bitmaps are a unique indexing
structure for fast combinations of low-cardinality data columns. Bitmap indexes
are especially powerful for data warehouses and low-update databases.
* Oracle Parallel Query (OPQ) - Parallel query is a
divide-and conquer approach whereby Symmetric Multiprocessing (SMP) and
Massively Parallel Processors (MPP) can get super-fast response time for
large-table full-table scans
* Parallel DML - This is the ability to perform database
changes (inserts, updates, deletes) in parallel.
* Parallel index rebuilding - This allows large Oracle
indexes to be rebuilt in a fraction of the time required by a single CPU system.
* Parallel index scans - This feature allows for
parallel fast full-index scans and multi-block reads of index data blocks.
* Parallel backup & recovery - This allows Oracle RMAN
backups to be parallelized for super-fast backups of large databases.
* Incremental backup & recovery - This feature tracks
database changes and only backs-up those components that have been changed since
the last backup.
* Oracle connection manager (CMAN) - Thos tool is used
for Oracle databases that must support large volumes of concurrent user
* Oracle Streams - Oracle offers many different methods
for database failover and replication.
Extra-cost Oracle Options
In addition, Oracle offers many extra-cost database
features that you can buy independently from the edition. These include:
* Oracle Partitioning Option - Oracle divide-and-conquer
approach for super-large databases. Partitioning is generally used for databases
over 100 gigabytes.
* Oracle Real Application Clusters (RAC) - RAC is the
Oracle flagship software for scalability and high availability. Free with Oracle
Standard Edition and extra-cost with Enterprise Edition, RAC is an integral part
of Oracle10g Grid computing, Oracle RAC is an extra-cost option for systems that
require continuous availability and super-high scalability.
* Oracle OLAP - Oracle is a leader in data warehouse
technology and has Online Analytical Processing (OLAP) tools for advanced
decision support and multi-terabyte data warehouses.
* Oracle Data Mining - Advanced data warehouse systems
require tools to locate hidden trends and correlations. Oracle offers a tool
with advanced artificial intelligence for finding hidden data correlations in
* Oracle Database Diagnostic Pack - This covers access
to the Oracle10g Automated Workload Repository (AWR) and Automatic Database
Diagnostic Monitor (ADDM) components.
* Oracle advanced Security - Oracle advanced Security
provides sophisticated security control for confidential and secure data
* Oracle Tuning Pack - Oracle provides a full-suite of
online tools for tuning the Oracle database. Integrated with the Oracle
Enterprise Manager, Oracle tuning pack competes with many 3rd-party vendor
* Oracle Change Management Pack - The change management
pack provides complete version control and database change auditing.
Next, let?s look at how to verify your compatibility
Checking for Oracle Compatibility Issues
Before you install Oracle you will need to check that
your computer hardware and operating system are compatible with Oracle. It?s
important to make sure that all of the pieces of your system work together, and
that?s what checking compatibility is all about. You will need to check:
* OS Version - The version of the operating system
* Hardware - The hardware platform that you are running
on (most releases of Oracle require at least 512k in RAM)
* OS Patches - Required patches (OS patches and hardware
firmware patches as required).
* Compatibility - The compatibility of your applications
with your chosen combinations of Hardware, OS and Oracle version.
Oracle database compatibility information is available
from the Oracle web site (www.oracle.com). When you install Oracle Database 10g,
the installer will insure that your system is configured properly, but it may
abort if you missed something.
Oracle Disk space allocation
The ?base? Oracle footprint takes a little over two
gigabytes of disk space. If you are going to use other optional products, you
will need to check the documentation for those products for their space
requirements. Usually, when planning disk space for the Oracle installation, you
want to have lots of extra space for any patches that you might need to download
(patches can easily be as big as the initial install).
We recommend at least 5 gigabytes of free disk space.
This makes the process of migrating to newer versions of Oracle much easier. In
addition, there are plenty of logs that will end up in your installation
location. Most Oracle professionals reserve at least 5 to 10 Gigabytes for the
base Oracle installation.
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