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Oracle Concepts - Drop Users System and Object Privileges

Oracle Tips by Burleson Consulting

Dropping Users

To drop a user, you must have the DROP USER system privilege. You can drop users with Server Manager or at the command line in SQL*Plus. The command line syntax for dropping a user is illustrated in Listing 36.

Listing 36: DROP USER Command

Here is an example:

DROP  USER  edward  CASCADE;

If a user owns any database objects, you can only drop that user by including the CASCADE keyword in the DROP USER command. The DROP USER command with the CASCADE keyword drops the user and all objects owned by that user. If you are using Server Manager to drop a user, you need to indicate that the associated schema objects be included in the command to drop the user. If a user owns objects and you fail to include CASCADE, you will receive an error message and the user will not be dropped. If a user is currently connected to the database, you cannot drop that user until he exits. After a user is dropped, all information on that user and all objects owned by that user are removed from the database.

After you have issued the command to drop a user, you cannot perform a rollback to re-create the user and his objects. DROP USER is a DDL command, which cannot be rolled back.

If you need the objects created by that user, you can revoke the CREATE SESSION system privilege to prevent the user from logging on, instead of dropping the user. You can also copy the objects to another user by importing the objects from an export made before the user was dropped. To avoid the problem of dropping a user without losing your application tables, all application tables should be owned by a separate application schema instead of an actual database user schema.

Grants

There are two types of (grants) privileges that can be granted:

* System privileges

* Object privileges

System privileges enable a user to perform a particular systemwide action or to perform a particular action on a particular type of object. For example, the privilege to create a table (CREATE TABLE) or insert rows into any table (INSERT ANY TABLE) are system privileges.

Object privileges enable a user to perform a particular action on a specific object, including tables, views, sequences, procedures, functions, and packages. For example, the privilege to insert rows into a particular table is an object privilege. Object privilege grants always include the name of the object for which the privilege is granted. Object privileges extend down to the level of individual columns in a table. These privileges are discussed in the following sections.

System Privileges

All users require the CREATE SESSION privilege to access the database. This privilege is automatically granted to all users when you perform the grants using Server Manager. If you create the user in command line mode, you must remember to explicitly grant each user the CREATE SESSION system privilege either directly or through a role. Listing 36 shows the syntax for the GRANT command. Here is an example of the command used to grant CREATE SESSION and CREATE TABLE.

GRANT  create session, create table
TO  annie
WITH ADMIN OPTION;

Listing 36: The syntax for GRANT command

System privileges also include roles that have been created.

System privileges can be granted to other users when the grant made includes the WITH ADMIN OPTION.

There are over 80 distinct privileges. Most of these are self-explanatory. Table 13 lists of all the system privileges, as listed in RevealNet's Oracle Administration product (used with their permission).

Privilege

Description

System Privilege

Allows grantee to . . .

FOR CLUSTERS:

Privilege

Description

CREATE CLUSTER

Create clusters in grantee's schema. 

CREATE ANY CLUSTER

Create a cluster in any schema except SYS. Behaves similarly to CREATE ANY TABLE. 

ALTER ANY CLUSTER

Alter clusters in any schema except SYS. 

DROP ANY CLUSTER

Drop clusters in any schema except SYS. 

FOR CONTEXTS:

Privilege

Description

CREATE ANY CONTEXT

Create any context namespace. 

DROP ANY CONTEXT

Drop any context namespace. 

FOR DATABASE:

Privilege

Description

ALTER DATABASE

Alter the database. 

ALTER SYSTEM

Issue ALTER SYSTEM statements. 

AUDIT SYSTEM

Issue AUDIT sql_statements statements.

FOR DATABASE LINKS:

Privilege

Description

CREATE DATABASE LINK

Create private database links in grantee's schema. 

CREATE PUBLIC DATABASE LINK

Create public database links. 

DROP PUBLIC DATABASE LINK

Drop public database links. 

FOR DIRECTORIES :

Privilege

Description

CREATE ANY DIRECTORY

Create directory database objects. 

DROP ANY DIRECTORY

Drop directory database objects.

FOR INDEXES:

Privilege

Description

CREATE INDEX

Create in the grantee's schema an index on any table in the grantee's schema or a domain index. 

CREATE ANY INDEX

Create in any schema except SYS a domain index or an index on any table in any schema except SYS.

ALTER ANY INDEX

Alter indexes in any schema except SYS. 

DROP ANY INDEX

Drop indexes in any schema except SYS. 

FOR LIBRARIES:

Privilege

Description

CREATE LIBRARY

Create external procedure/function libraries in grantee's schema. 

CREATE ANY LIBRARY

Create external procedure/function libraries in any schema except SYS. 

DROP LIBRARY

Drop external procedure/function libraries in the grantee's schema. 

DROP ANY LIBRARY

Drop external procedure/function libraries in any schema except SYS. 

FOR PROCEDURES :

Privilege

Description

CREATE PROCEDURE

Create stored procedures, functions, and packages in grantee's schema 

CREATE ANY PROCEDURE

Create stored procedures, functions, and packages in any schema except SYS.

ALTER ANY PROCEDURE

Alter stored procedures, functions, or packages in any schema except SYS

DROP ANY PROCEDURE

Drop stored procedures, functions, or packages in any schema except SYS

EXECUTE ANY PROCEDURE

Execute procedures or functions (standalone or packaged) Reference public package variables in any schema except SYS 

FOR PROFILES:

Privilege

Description

CREATE PROFILE

Create profiles

ALTER PROFILE

Alter profiles 

DROP PROFILE

Drop profiles 

FOR ROLES:

Privilege

Description

CREATE ROLE

Create roles 

ALTER ANY ROLE

Alter any role in the database 

DROP ANY ROLE

Drop roles 

GRANT ANY ROLE

Grant any role in the database 

FOR ROLLBACK SEGMENTS:

Privilege

Description

CREATE ROLLBACK SEGMENT

Create rollback segments 

ALTER ROLLBACK SEGMENT

Alter rollback segments 

DROP ROLLBACK SEGMENT

Drop rollback segments 

FOR SEQUENCES: 

Privilege

Description

CREATE SEQUENCE

Create sequences in grantee's schema 

CREATE ANY SEQUENCE

Create sequences in any schema except SYS 

ALTER ANY SEQUENCE

Alter any sequence in the database 

DROP ANY SEQUENCE

Drop sequences in any schema except SYS 

SELECT ANY SEQUENCE

Reference sequences in any schema except SYS 

FOR SESSIONS:

Privilege

Description

CREATE SESSION

Connect to the database 

ALTER RESOURCE COST

Set costs for session resources 

ALTER SESSION

Issue ALTER SESSION statements 

RESTRICTED SESSION

Logon after the instance is started using the SQL*Plus STARTUP RESTRICT statement 

FOR SNAPSHOTS:

Privilege

Description

CREATE SNAPSHOT

Create snapshots in grantee's schema 

CREATE ANY SNAPSHOT

Create snapshots in any schema except SYS 

ALTER ANY SNAPSHOT

Alter any snapshot in the database 

DROP ANY SNAPSHOT

Drop snapshots in any schema except SYS 

FOR SYNONYMS:

Privilege

Description

CREATE SYNONYM

Create synonyms in grantee's schema 

CREATE ANY SYNONYM

Create private synonyms in any schema except SYS 

CREATE PUBLIC SYNONYM

Create public synonyms 

DROP ANY SYNONYM

Drop private synonyms in any schema except SYS 

DROP PUBLIC SYNONYM

Drop public synonyms 

FOR TABLES:

Privilege

Description

CREATE ANY TABLE

Create tables in any schema except SYS. The owner of the schema containing the table must have space quota on the tablespace to contain the table. 

ALTER ANY TABLE

Alter any table or view in the schema 

BACKUP ANY TABLE

Use the Export utility to incrementally export objects from the schema of other users 

DELETE ANY TABLE

Delete rows from tables, table partitions, or views in any schema except SYS 

DROP ANY TABLE

Drop or truncate tables or table partitions in any schema except SYS 

INSERT ANY TABLE

Insert rows into tables and views in any schema except SYS 

LOCK ANY TABLE

Lock tables and views in any schema except SYS 

UPDATE ANY TABLE

Update rows in tables and views in any schema except SYS 

SELECT ANY TABLE

Query tables, views, or snapshots in any schema except SYS 

FOR TABLESPACES: 

Privilege

Description

CREATE TABLESPACE

Create tablespaces 

ALTER TABLESPACE

 Alter tablespaces 

DROP TABLESPACE

Drop tablespaces 

MANAGE TABLESPACE

Take tablespaces offline and online and begin and end tablespace backups

 


This is an excerpt from the eBook "Oracle DBA made Simple".

For more details on Oracle database administration, see the "Easy Oracle Jumpstart" by Robert Freeman and Steve Karam.  It?s only $19.95 when you buy it directly from the publisher here.

 


 

 
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